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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... For most plastic candidates for long-term performance, the design life can be quite long, months or years. As a result, the log-log coordinate system ( Fig. 15c ) has greater utility. Furthermore, creep-rupture data tend to display linearly on this coordinate scheme. Creep Strain Data Plots Figure...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... absorbed until fracture ( U p ) is plotted as a function of BWϕ for specimens having different a/W values, a straight line should be obtained. The slope of this line is taken as the value of G Ic ( Ref 54 ). Contrary to the determination of the fracture toughness values at moderate loading...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... relatively sharp. Polypropylene is more suited for K -based fracture mechanics analysis. Micromechanisms of Toughening Engineering materials have mechanistic toughening schemes that can be distributed across two categories: intrinsic and extrinsic. Generally, intrinsic mechanisms occur ahead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... scission ensues. A general hydrolysis scheme is summarized in Fig. 1 . Fig. 1 Schematic of degradation by hydrolysis and subsequent chain scission The reduction in molecular weight consequent to chain scission can lead to a reduction of toughness and fracture strain. Stress is known...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., the travel time to that peak can be based on the time that the gate is crossed or the time that the peak reaches its maximum. These functions are commonly referred to as peak detection and triggering logic. The C-scan image shown on the right in Fig. 11 was created by plotting the maximum signal amplitude...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the baseline length for the fatigue crack propagation fracture profile of a IN-718 nickel-base alloy having a coarse grain structure (grain size, 23 μm). Observe that average asperity height reaches a saturation value for baseline lengths larger than 500 μm. Source: Ref 6 , 31 Fig. 7 Plot of crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials has necessitated increasing the body of knowledge on this subject. Some excellent reviews in this area are available in the literature ( Ref 2 - 4 ). There are three types of internal stresses in amorphous polymers (this classification scheme can be extended to include semicrystalline polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a direct numerical integration scheme with only three random variables included. According to one of the lead developers ( Ref 8 ), the method could be expanded to four variables, but five would be computationally prohibitive. When small probabilities, typical of structural life assessments...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... It is imperative that the damage accumulation and life-estimation scheme employed accounts for the underlying physics of each damage mechanism as well as their interactions. Experimental Techniques to Promote Thermomechanical Fatigue Damage Mechanisms and Elucidate Mechanism Coupling Interactions Performing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... initiation and growth This mechanism was contested by Donald et al. ( Ref 71 ), who suggested that the shear bands may act only as a craze terminator when the crazes grow. Thus, the shear bands would not be the craze initiators, as the previous mechanistic scheme suggests. Furthermore, the authors...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... approach is valid and often preferred when elastic stresses are dominant. The basis of the stress-life method is the S - N curve, which is a plot of alternating stress, S , versus cycles to failure, N . Usually, a mean curve or lower bound curve is fit to fatigue test data. As discussed later...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... on the life of a component. For fracture mechanics methods, material behavior is described by fracture toughness and crack growth rate data, and geometry is defined through a dimensionless β factor. For traditional fatigue methods such as the stress-life method, an S - N curve, which plots stress versus...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is determined by following the volume of the liquid polymer assembly and subtracting the contributions of the confining liquid. When the results are plotted as specific volume versus temperature, the glass temperature is indicated by the temperature at which the volume of the polymer sample undergoes a change...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be of concern. Modern surface analysis equipment uses low-energy electron and/or ion beams to help neutralize surface charge buildup during analysis. In general, XPS and TOF-SIMS can readily analyze conductive materials, semiconductors, and insulators with this neutralization scheme. The AES analysis of fully...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are discussed in the article “Characterization of Plastics in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. A brief scheme of structure analysis as it relates to material failure is presented in Table 2 . A typical problem a materials engineer must face is the evaluation of a piece of failed pipe. Identifying...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis X-ray diffraction analysis Further details of polymer characterization are discussed in Ref 8. A brief scheme of structure analysis as it relates to material failure is presented in Table 2 . A typical problem a materials engineer must face is the evaluation of a piece of failed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... If the type of wear in a particular industrial operation is known, there is a possibility of simulating this kind of wear in laboratory tests in order to obviate extensive programs of expensive field trials. The usual starting point in developing a wear classification scheme is to define wear...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a particular industrial operation is known, there is a possibility of simulating this kind of wear in laboratory tests in order to obviate extensive programs of expensive field trials. The usual starting point in developing a wear classification scheme is to define wear. The following definition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of the device. Gravimetric feeders use similar mechanical devices while also including a weighing system and control scheme. The feeder speed is constantly adjusted based on direct material weight to ensure a consistent discharge rate. The barrel is a cylindrical channel that encases the screw. The barrel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9