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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 20 Stress distribution ahead of crack in which small-scale plasticity is included More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 20 Stress distribution ahead of crack in which small-scale plasticity is included More
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the applicability of available analytical tools in conjunction with an understanding of failure mechanisms. brittle fractures crack propagation deformation ductile fractures fractography fracture characteristics fracture modes fracture surfaces mechanical behavior plastics structural polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article reviews the mechanical behavior and fracture characteristics that discriminate structural polymers from metals, including plastic deformation. It provides overviews of crack propagation and fractography. The article presents the distinction between ductile and brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article describes the viscoelastic behavior of plastics in their solid state only, from the standpoint of the material deforming without fracturing. The consequences of viscoelasticity on the mechanical properties of plastics are described, especially in terms of time-dependencies...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article provides background information needed by design engineers to create part designs optimized for plastics and plastic manufacturing processes. It describes the four essential elements of plastic part development, namely, material, process, tooling, and design, and provides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Plastics or polymers are used in a variety of engineering and nonengineering applications where they are subjected to surface damage and wear. This article discusses the classification of polymer wear mechanisms based on the methodologies of defining the types of wear. The first...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of an acetal gear wheel. acetal gear wheel bulk wear elastomers thermoplastics thermosets interfacial wear nylon polyurethane elastomeric coatings wear wear rate wear resistance PLASTICS (OR POLYMERS) are used in a variety of engineering and nonengineering applications in which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006866
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... It summarizes the main synthetic polymers that are released and available for bacterial and fungal decomposition. The article also presents a detailed discussion on the enzymes that are involved in plastic degradation, and the measurement of polymer degradation. bacterial decomposition biodegradation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006868
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article presents the benefits of selecting plastics for products to be manufactured. It discusses the four key considerations for plastic part design: material, process, tooling, and design. The article provides a detailed discussion of the development sequence for plastic parts...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006925
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This introductory article describes the various aspects of chemical structure that are important to an understanding of polymer properties and thus their eventual effect on the end-use performance of engineering plastics. The polymers covered include hydrocarbon polymers, carbon-chain...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006914
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract A material is flammable if it is subject to easy ignition and rapidly flaming combustion. The plastics that are most widely used are the least expensive and tend to be the most flammable. This article describes the two basic approaches to improving the fire resistance of a polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Plastic product failures are directly attributed to one of the following four reasons: omission of a critical performance requirement, improper materials specification, design error, and processing/manufacturing error. Therefore, product failures can be minimized or eliminated if all...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract The article commences with an overview of short-term and long-term mechanical properties of polymeric materials. It discusses plasticization, solvation, and swelling in rubber products. The article further describes environmental stress cracking and degradation of polymers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the analytical techniques most commonly used in plastic component failure analysis. These include the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, thermomechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract With any polymeric material, chemical exposure may have one or more different effects. Some chemicals act as plasticizers, changing the polymer from one that is hard, stiff, and brittle to one which is softer, more flexible, and sometimes tougher. Often these chemicals can dissolve...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006913
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article addresses electrical testing and characterization of plastics and presents a number of techniques for evaluating the electrical properties of insulating materials, with a special focus on plastics, accompanied by a list of the electrical properties of different types...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to fracture (glassy polymers). This article provides an overview of historical development of fracture behavior in polymers. It discusses the processes involved in three fracture test methods for polymers, namely linear elastic fracture mechanics, elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, and post-yield fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the physics and math associated with moisture-related failures in plastic components. It develops key equations, showing how they are used to analyze the causes and effects of water uptake, diffusion, and moisture concentration in polymeric...