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plastic strain

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... initiate. The results of the autofrettage process, which creates a state of plastic strain in the material, is an increase in the fatigue life of the component. Analysis (visual inspection, 50x/500x unetched micrographs, and electron microprobe analysis) supports the conclusion that the fracture toughness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001452
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... where embrittlement had developed following plastic straining and service at a temperature of 260 deg C (500 deg F) suggested that failure resulted from strain-age embrittlement. Brackets Ovens Rimming steel Brittle fracture A bracket which formed part of the carrier of a chain conveyor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001840
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... energy reduces shear strength significantly, causing the cladding process to fail. The findings reveal the decisive role of plastic strain localization and the associated development of microcracks in cladding failures. An attempt is thus made to determine the optimum cladding parameters...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Metallurgical examination of the crack origin revealed that casting pores played a role in initiating the crack. Stress components, identified by finite element analysis, also played a role, particularly the stresses imposed by the bolt assembly leading to plastic strain. It was concluded that the failure can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... , London , 1899 30. Gerber H. , Bestimmung der zulassigen Spannungen in Eisenkonstructionen (Determination of the Permissible Stresses in Iron Structures) , Z. Bayer. Arch. Ing.-Vereins , Vol 6 , 1874 , p 101 – 110 31. Morrow J.D. , Cyclic Plastic Strain Energy and Fatigue...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is unaffected. The damage begins as slip line formation due to plastic deformation, which progresses to cracking at high strain levels. The cracks appear to initiate from slip lines and extend in shear (mode II) manner. surgical wire fracture compressive damage nitinol cracking scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., for example, by evaporation. Environmental stress cracking occurs without significant absorption of an environmental reagent by the polymer but will promote brittle fracture in normally ductile plastics at levels of stress or strain well below those that would usually cause failure at all. Actual degradation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... boundaries properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... setting up thermally generated biaxial tensile stress gradients, but on a more localized scale (see Ref 2 ). This is a second source of cyclic plastic strain. Fig. 15 Maximum allowable stress versus service temperature for ASTM A-106 grade B material. Adapted from Ref 2 . Design operating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001487
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... A corresponds to a total compressive strain of 0.0011 in/″ of which 0.00078 in/″ is elastic, and 0.00032 in/″ is plastic strain. On cooling during running, contraction occurs along line AA 1 B and, at the original temperature, a tensile stress of 5000 p.s.i. will develop in the restrained portion of the coils...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001852
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... measurements. One such unloading–reloading is shown in Fig. 4 . The 0.2% offset method was used for yield stress determination. A log–log plot of stress and plastic strain is constructed to evaluate the Ramberg–Osgood coefficients K and n ( Fig. 5 ). The results of the tensile tests show yield strength...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also occur when plastic deformation is limited to a small volume of material and not macroscale visible, while the fracture process is still microvoid coalescence. This is the case when the ductile fracture mechanism of microvoid coalescence is constrained to a plane-strain fracture mode (referred...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For Waspaloy, it has been shown ( Ref 8 ) that the slip-band density is given by: (Eq 1) i = A Δ ε p − δ where i is slip-band spacing, Δε p is plastic strain range at the lower temperature, and A and δ are experimentally determined parameters. Oxidation proceeds according...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... primary creep) is the region of the initial instantaneous elastic strain from the applied load, followed by a region of increasing plastic strain at a decreasing strain rate ( Fig. 3b ). Following the first stage of primary creep is the region of secondary creep, where the creep rate is nominally constant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Observation of Plastic Strain Smaller amounts of plastic deformation might be determined via careful measurement if the surfaces of the component are relatively smooth. The ability to see a neck in a tensile specimen depends on the amount of strain hardening and to some extent, the amount of strain-rate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... International, 1996, and “Elevated-Temperature Failures,” Lesson 7, Principles of Failure Analysis, Materials Engineering Institute, ASM International. Primary creep, also known as transient creep, represents a stage of adjustment during which rapid, thermally-activated plastic strain occurs. In metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Warpage can be the result of plastic deformation that occurred in some region of the part at elevated temperature or during a change in temperature. Dimensional changes accompanying stress relief are the result of relief of those stresses involving both elastic and plastic strains. Distortion that occurs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a change in temperature. Dimensional changes accompanying stress relief are the result of relief of those stresses involving both elastic and plastic strains. Distortion that occurs during other types of heat treatment involves mainly plastic strain and generally results in high levels of residual stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... , Taylor & Francis Inc ., 1998 10.1201/b12575 16. Pineault J.A. , Brauss M.E. , and Porter J.F. , Characterization of Plastic Strain in HY-80 Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques , Proceedings of the Conference on Naval Applications of Material Technology ( Halifax ), D.R.E.A...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to high temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture. boiler tube fracture corrosion pits salt incrustation carbon steel thermal fatigue striations dimples microstructural analysis plastic strain A192 (carbon steel) UNS...