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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-sectional collapse on load-displacement behavior Fig. 43 Schematic of collapse of unreinforced cross section Fig. 44 Schematic of buckling of front face of bumper Abstract This article reviews the impact response of plastic components and the various methods used to evaluate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006917
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of a plastic component, environmental stress cracking (ESC) is recognized as one of the leading causes of plastic failure. This article focuses on unpacking the basic concepts of ESC to provide the engineer with a better understanding of how to evaluate and prevent it. It then presents factors that affect...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the analytical techniques most commonly used in plastic component failure analysis. These include the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, thermomechanical analysis, and dynamic mechanical analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... This article reviews analytical techniques that are most often used in plastic component failure analysis. The description of the techniques is intended to familiarize the reader with the general principles and benefits of the methodologies, namely Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... tests) Resin/curing agent or plastic Beginning water content, wt% Water loss, wt% EPON Resin 826(a)/diaminodiphenyl sulfone 2.28 −0.91 at 40 °C/min (70 °F/min) −2.02 at 10 °C/min (18 °F/min) PC 0.32 −0.2 at 40 °C/min (70 °F/min) −0.39 at 10 °C/min (18 °F/min) PSU 0.57 −0.25...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003513
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Optimized modeling of fracture-critical structural components and connections requires the application of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. Such applications, however, can require sophisticated analytical techniques such as crack tip opening displacement (CTOD), failure assessment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090457
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... body. Sharp corners are considered a poor design feature in plastic components, because they can result in severe stress concentration and can produce areas of localized poor fusion. The fracture surface was further evaluated using SEM. The SEM examination showed a clear crack origin at the corner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0047144
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... The results of the autofrettage process, which creates a state of plastic strain in the material, is an increase in the fatigue life of the component. Analysis (visual inspection, 50x/500x unetched micrographs, and electron microprobe analysis) supports the conclusion that the fracture toughness of the steel...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., and a procedure to deal with stress by determining maximum values through stress transformation is described. The article provides the stress analysis equations of typical component geometries and discusses some of the implications of the stress analysis relative to failure in components. It focuses on linear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to excessive force, for instance, when a user attempts to open a cell phone by prying open the case with a screwdriver. The plastic shell components of an outdoor enclosure were reused for a similar application in a different market segment requiring the same basic physical design and protective function...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... will reduce the materials’ mechanical properties. Characterization of the diffusion or sorption of penetrants into plastics may promote an understanding of the environmental effects on failure properties. After a plastic component is exposed to an organic chemical, aggressive molecules may diffuse...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... linear elastic solid and linear viscous fluid responses to stress and strain is important for being able to successfully design and model functional plastic components. In the previous discussion, simple component linear elastic solid and linear viscous fluid mathematical descriptions were provided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract A longeron assembly constructed of Alclad 2024, some parts being in the T3 condition, others in the T42 condition, failed at a rivet hole. Plastic deformation at the crack site was found, but no plastic deformation was found in similar failed components. It was concluded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Metallurgical examination of the crack origin revealed that casting pores played a role in initiating the crack. Stress components, identified by finite element analysis, also played a role, particularly the stresses imposed by the bolt assembly leading to plastic strain. It was concluded that the failure can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A large crack developed at a girder-truss joint area of the Fremont bridge in Portland, OR, on 28 Oct 1971. It occurred during a positioning procedure involving a junction piece welded to a girder, starting as a brittle fracture and terminating in plastic hinges in the girder web welds...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c0090442
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... Abstract A number of plastic sleeves used in an automotive application cracked after assembly but prior to installation into the mating components. The sleeves were specified to be injection molded from a 20% glass-fiber-reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) resin. After molding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... testing of plastics includes the characterization of materials and the analysis of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, the knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface irregularity, birefringence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001674
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... tetra-nitrate (PETN). Explosive B varies with different applications and was not involved in the corrosion. The plastic header for the detonator assembly is diallyl phthalate (DAP) which also contains glass fibers and clay as fillers and various dyes for component identification. The 38 µm (0.0015...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... the elastic range of the material and the cycles to failure are relatively high ( Ref 6 ). The stress-life method may not be appropriate for low-cycle applications (generally considered to be less than 10,000 cycles), where the applied loading could result in a significant cyclic plastic strain component...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... noteworthy is that nylon and polyethylene terephthalate do not exhibit a fatigue limit. Because plastics are sensitive to many factors, including frequency, temperature, mean stress, and molecular structure, the fatigue test conditions must closely mimic the service conditions of the polymeric component...