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plane-stress deformation

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the slip plane causes alternate rupture and self-healing of the interatomic bonds, resulting in permanent deformation. A normal stress applied to the body causes only continued separation of atoms and therefore brittle cleavage fracture. Fig. 2 Schematic figure showing the effect of a normal stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the interplanar distance and ultimately results in fracture. Application of a shear stress causes the planes of atoms to slide over each other and results in permanent deformation rather than fracture. Much of the evidence for the processes of ductile slip deformation and cleavage fracture to support...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prestrained in torsion to a shear strain of 4.3×. Source (b): Ref 3 In off-axis or bending fractures, the fracture plane is often generally perpendicular with the direction of maximum principal stress, providing information about the type and direction of loading. As the fracture progresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... load ( slant fracture or plane-stress). Toughness is higher under conditions of plane stress, as the additional work expended in work-hardening deformation contributes to fracture resistance under load. A fracture surface displaying both types of planes can be described as a mixed mode fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... This is because the third normal principal stress (which happens to have zero magnitude) has been neglected. Next consider plane strain. If ε z = 0, then plane-strain conditions exist wherever γ xz = γ yz = 0. Plane deformation, in which u z = 0 (where u z is displacement in the z...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” in this Volume). This section describes the underlying fundamentals and the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional (2D) analyses lead...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that propagate ideally along shear planes. Like crazes, shear-deformation bands, or slip lines, are traditionally thought to be the mechanism of irreversible tensile deformation in ductile amorphous polymers. Almost invariably, a compressive-stress state will cause shear deformation in polymers. Under monotonic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... However, most of these cracks are of little consequence, and will normally show erratic growth, if any. A few cracks which develop in the area of high cyclic tensile stresses (immediately under the plastically deformed layer of material), will grow as a result of the cyclic in-plane tensile stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... axis, as representative of mode I (plane-strain) crack propagation. When cracks reach a region near the outer surface, the mode of fracture changes to mode II (plane-stress) condition, where shear strain becomes the operative mode of deformation (as maximum stresses occur along the shear plane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at the external plane had any connection with the plier marks, several sections were made across these points. The steel that showed a fine-grained and fine-needled heat treated structure was deeply cold deformed under the plier marks ( Fig. 10 ) and fractured in the direction of shear stress. Thus the fracture...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) is the submicroscopic alteration of the crystal structure of a metal by repetitive stressing of the specimen or part. In this stage, fatigue cracks nucleate and coalesce by slip-plane fracture, extending inward from the surface at approximately 45° to the stress axis. On the submicroscopic scale, dislocation density...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Fig. 2 Fig. 3 A. Cylindrical bar subjected to a fluctuating unidirectional bending moment evenly distributed along the length considered. As the section is uniform, the maximum tensile stress in the plane of bending will be constant, as indicated by the thin arrows, the lengths...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: Ref 15 Fig. 10 Ship’s service turbine generator casing showing critical planes A , B , and C on which stresses were determined by finite-element analysis during transient and steady-state conditions. Dimensions are given in inches. Source: Ref 28 Fig. 11 Ship’s service...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the characteristics of fatigue fractures followed by a discussion on the effects of loading and stress distribution, and material condition on the microstructure of the material. In addition, general prevention and characteristics of corrosion fatigue, contact fatigue, and thermal fatigue are also presented...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001471
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... section of the hook adjacent to the plane of fracture, showed the hook was made from a killed steel free from major segregation. Microscopic examination showed the material to be a mild steel in the normalized condition, the carbon content being of the order of 0.25%. Bend tests showed the material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... to a load sufficient to raise the stress at this part above the yield point of the material. The intrados showed evidence of general wear over the lower half, extending towards the back of the hook beyond the plane of rupture; in places very shallow grooves had developed due to abrasion between the lifting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... corresponded closely to the bottom of the threaded hole in the head necessary for the electrical connection within the chamber and was the maximum stress plane. The failure location was on the chamber side of the seal. No macroscopic ductility was observed in the fractured pins. The manufacturer had...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001426
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... and tested by bending so as to subject the outer surface to a tensile stress. Two of them deformed satisfactorily, while the third fractured in the plane of the weld but only after appreciable plastic deformation had occurred. These three specimens are shown in Figure 1(d) . Fig. 1 Specimens...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., fractures in torsion on a plane parallel to the maximum shear stress. Higher magnification SEM analysis of the torsional overload fracture surfaces also reveals distinctive features. Near the outer diameter (OD) of the wire, the torsional failure fracture surfaces show a large amount of rubbing, shown...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracks initially propagating on different planes intersected. The ratchet mark at the middle arrow was damaged by postfracture contact. Fig. 3 Schematic of gradients in fatigue initiation driving force (shown as total stress) and fatigue resistance (fatigue strength) that can result...