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plane-strain compression test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... MnS inclusions and smaller spheroidal carbides). Fracture initiates at (large) MnS inclusions, followed by microscale strain localization on planes of high shear stress. These planes randomly contain smaller carbide particles, which subsequently nucleate voids. This is referred to as void sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... MnS inclusions and smaller spheroidal carbides). Fracture initiates at (large) MnS inclusions, followed by microscale strain localization on planes of high shear stress. These planes randomly contain smaller carbide particles, which subsequently nucleate voids. This is referred to as void sheet...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional analyses lead to erroneous results are presented. Three-dimensional stress transformations are discussed, and a procedure to obtain the principal stresses and associated directions as well as the maximum shear...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” in this Volume). This section describes the underlying fundamentals and the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional (2D) analyses lead...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the bend and eventually at sufficient compressive strains will fail along maximum shear stress planes. Fig. 14 Tension and compression behavior in NiTi tubing Kinking Failures NiTi wires were intentionally subjected to torsion and tensile loading to cause kinking. This failure morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... orientation Surface condition Stress concentration Environment (temperature, corrosion) Type of loading (axial, bending, torsion) Test-controlling parameter (load, displacement, strain) Frequency and waveform Mean stress ( R -ratio) Type of stress for evaluation (nominal or local...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alloy 2024-T3. Source: Ref 10 In the roots of small fatigue-crack notches, the local stress state is triaxial (plane strain). This reduces the local apparent ductility of the material and helps control the orientation of the crack as long as the crack is small. After a crack has nucleated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... material. As section thickness ( B ) or preexisting crack length ( a ) increases, plane-strain conditions develop first along the centerline and result in a flat fracture surface. With further increases in section thickness or crack size, the flat region spreads to the outside of the specimen, decreasing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... deformation which, in turn, occurs due to passage of wheels and leads to an attempted expansion of the top layer of the rail. As this expansion is constrained, a residual compressive stress system is built up causing a strain equal and opposite to the plastic expansion, so that the resulting deformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... surface on the behaviour of the material when subjected to a bending stress, as at the time of failure, two strips were cut from the position indicated in Figure 2 with their axes parallel and in the plane of the hook. These strips were tested by bending over a former having a diameter equal to three...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... modes during tensile loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth and fibrous tearing occur along a crack plane that is essentially normal to the axis of the tensile load. The fracture appearance typically has a dull and fibrous appearance, as in the classic “cup and-cone” feature...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the stress field is changing rapidly (either in direction or magnitude) or when the stress state changes from one of plane strain to plane stress. For example, they are frequently observed in the region of a specimen subjected to bending on the original compression side of the specimen but changes to tension...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and not macroscale visible, while the fracture process is still microvoid coalescence. This is the case when the ductile fracture mechanism of microvoid coalescence is constrained to a plane-strain strain fracture mode (referred to as plane-strain microvoid coalescence) or occurs preferentially in the limited region...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., then the stress in the area ahead of the crack increases dramatically. In a simplistic manner (plane stress), the stress cannot increase beyond the elastic limit (yield strength) until the entire area affected by the crack tip is plastically deformed. In a more complex case (plain strain), the stress can increase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of Residual Stress , Exp. Tech. , March 1995 14. Pineault J.A. , Brauss M.E. , and Porter J.F. , Characterization of Plastic Strain in HY-80 Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques , Proceedings of the Conference on Naval Applications of Material Technology , ( Halifax ), D.R.E.A...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... stress and plastic strain. The level of compressive stress imparted by LSP has been associated with acting to increase the fatigue resistance of certain components by up to 10 times. Laser shock peening has been used in many industries, including aerospace, automotive, power generation, and others. X-ray...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to vary the tension in the wire. Shock loading was obtained by firing a “bullet” at the rear of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 1 . The wire was fitted with strain gauges to measure the static and dynamic strains and loads on the wire via a digital oscilloscope. Fig. 1 Schematic of impact testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Springer , Berlin , 1937 . 10.1007/978-3-662-36565-6 25. Roark R. J. , “Formulae for Stress and Strain,” 1938 ( McGraw-Hill Pub. Co. Inc. , N.Y. ). 26. Horger O. J. and Buckwalter T. V. , Iron Age , Vol. 145 , May 1940 , p. 42 . 27. MacGregor R...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of the microvoids, which then grow and coalesce as deformation progresses further. Ductile fracture by void growth and coalescence can occur by two modes during tensile loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth and fibrous tearing occur along a crack plane that is essentially normal to the axis...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the basic in-plane strains and the buckling stability of the origin area were evaluated. These analyses revealed that premature skin buckling occurred because of a relatively large fastener spacing. As a result, further attention was paid to this design detail, and fastener spacing was reduced to prevent...