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plane-strain compression test

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in tensile testing of the order of 10 −3 to 10 −2 per minute do not typically cause deformation twinning at room temperature, but a hammer blow will cause twinning.) When deformation twinning does occur during plastic straining, it is usually activated after prior deformation by slip (but see subsequent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a hcp structure, just as there are differences in the stress necessary to cause cleavage. Deformation twinning does occur in materials having a bcc lattice, with twinning more likely at low temperature and elevated strain rates. (Strain rates commonly encountered in tensile testing of the order...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the creep tensile modulus by 2.8. Fig. 9 Tensile creep strain of polypropylene copolymer. (a) Semi-log plot. (b) Log-log plot Other Strength/Modulus and Deflection Tests Compressive Strength Test (ASTM D695 and ISO 604) Stress-strain properties are also measured for the behavior...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001802
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the bend and eventually at sufficient compressive strains will fail along maximum shear stress planes. Fig. 14 Tension and compression behavior in NiTi tubing Kinking Failures NiTi wires were intentionally subjected to torsion and tensile loading to cause kinking. This failure morphology...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... based on maximum strain). Additionally, some criteria take into account polar behavior (unequal tensile and compressive failure stresses), anisotropic behavior, and nonconstancy of volume during deformation. The historically early models (Rankine, Tresca, von Mises, and octahedral shear) were...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” in this Volume). This section describes the underlying fundamentals and the relevance and necessity of performing proper stress analysis in conducting a failure analysis. Both plane stress and plane strain are explored, and instances in which seemingly appropriate two-dimensional (2D) analyses lead...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006919
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... in this section. None of the tests provides fundamental material properties that are quantitatively useful in a design analysis sense. However, the engineer should understand the behavior that they reflect qualitatively. Unlike the results of other impact tests, plane-strain fracture toughness, the next...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... yield, subjected to a plane-strain compression test ( Ref 56 , 68 ). Fig. 12 Cross-sectional images taken from deformed specimens, viewed between crossed polars, for (a) polystyrene microshear bands and (b) polymethyl methacrylate shear bands. Source: Ref 56 , 68 Shear Bands...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001451
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... surface on the behaviour of the material when subjected to a bending stress, as at the time of failure, two strips were cut from the position indicated in Figure 2 with their axes parallel and in the plane of the hook. These strips were tested by bending over a former having a diameter equal to three...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048498
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., propagation occurred chordwise across the compression-loaded skin panel. Inasmuch as no anomalies were identified at the origin area that might explain premature fracture, detailed stress analyses of this area were initiated. Both the basic in-plane strains and the buckling stability of the origin area were...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... orientation Surface condition Stress concentration Environment (temperature, corrosion) Type of loading (axial, bending, torsion) Test-controlling parameter (load, displacement, strain) Frequency and waveform Mean stress ( R -ratio) Type of stress for evaluation (nominal or local...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... prestrained in torsion to a shear strain of 4.3×. Source (b): Ref 3 In off-axis or bending fractures, the fracture plane is often generally perpendicular with the direction of maximum principal stress, providing information about the type and direction of loading. As the fracture progresses...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001659
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... The increased hardness is due to plastic deformation which, in turn, occurs due to passage of wheels and leads to an attempted expansion of the top layer of the rail. As this expansion is constrained, a residual compressive stress system is built up causing a strain equal and opposite to the plastic expansion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to quantitatively compare the strain magnitude in different areas. The forming limit curve is needed to assess if the measured strains exceed the capability of a given sheet metal. Forming Limit Curve A tensile test determines the forming capability of a flat sample deformed in the plane of the sample...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006910
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... specimens for guaranteeing plane strain and properly run the tests should be of B ≥ 8 mm (0.31 in.), with typical values of sample thickness and sample width of B ≥ 9.4 mm (0.37 in.) and W = 2 B mm (in.), respectively ( Ref 52 ). The orientation of the specimen with respect to processing...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and plastic strain. If any one of these three is not present, fatigue cracks will not initiate and propagate. The cyclic stress and strain starts the crack; the tensile stress produces crack growth (propagation). Although compressive stress will not cause fatigue cracks to propagate, compression loads may do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the first to provide fatigue of polymers using this technique. Strain-controlled tests are often employed in fatigue of metals ( Ref 8 , 9 ) to produce a strain-life curve and, most importantly, a cyclic stress-strain curve to describe the response of these materials to variable strain amplitude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... to vary the tension in the wire. Shock loading was obtained by firing a “bullet” at the rear of the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 1 . The wire was fitted with strain gauges to measure the static and dynamic strains and loads on the wire via a digital oscilloscope. Fig. 1 Schematic of impact testing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... strains, etc.) X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual-Stress Measurement The XRD technique uses the distance between crystallographic planes, that is, d -spacing, as a strain gage. This method can only be applied to crystalline, polycrystalline, and semicrystalline materials ( Ref 1 , 27...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and not macroscale visible, while the fracture process is still microvoid coalescence. This is the case when the ductile fracture mechanism of microvoid coalescence is constrained to a plane-strain strain fracture mode (referred to as plane-strain microvoid coalescence) or occurs preferentially in the limited region...