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planar grinding

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides a discussion on the metallographic techniques used for failure analysis, and on fracture examination in materials, with illustrations. It discusses various metallographic specimen preparation techniques, namely, sectioning, mounting, grinding, polishing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is called planar grinding. This step must remove the damage from sectioning while establishing a common plane for all specimens in the holder, so that each specimen is affected equally in subsequent steps. Silicon carbide and alumina abrasive papers are commonly used for the planar grinding step...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... inclusions, weld discontinuities, grinding cracks) or service (e.g., corrosion pits, impact damage) can result in fatigue crack initiation under circumstances where an unflawed component would have had acceptable fatigue life. Conversely, inadequate design, excessive load, or low material strength in fatigue...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... comes from a planar flaw or a volumetric flaw? Is there the possibility of a planar flaw being hidden by or growing out of the volumetric flaw? Does the planar flaw have a sharp tip or a blunted tip? The failure analysis expert must understand the NDE information rather than treat all flaws...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crack initiation is frequently the life-controlling step in the failure process. Discontinuities introduced during processing or manufacture (e.g., abnormally large inclusions, weld discontinuities, grinding cracks) or service (e.g., corrosion pits, impact damage) can result in fatigue crack initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003509
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...: planar imperfections, volumetric imperfections, and geometrical imperfections. These spatial categories, as discussed subsequently, all have distinct mechanical characteristics in terms of weld reliability and performance. Fig. 2 Schematic of defects and discontinuities in welded joints...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... The intersection of a split with the surface of the wire was sometimes curved, as shown in Figure 4 . Evaluations of this sample, conducted by grinding several successive planes into the wire parallel to its longitudinal axis, showed that the split was continuous along the curve. This implies that the split...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... components, but will give an unsatisfactory appearance or will make further processing, such as machining, more costly. Many such imperfections can be easily corrected by shotblast cleaning or grinding. Other imperfections or defects that can be more difficult to remove can be acceptable in some...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of the failure specimens. Selection of the most informative cross-section locations is important. Metallurgical examination of a cross section requires mounting, surface grinding, polishing, and examining the sample in the unetched and etched condition under a microscope. Microstructural features and conditions...