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planar front growth

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by more-or-less curved marks that delineate the position of the crack front at a particular point in time. These marks are commonly called beach marks and are also known as clamshell marks and arrest marks. Beach marks are produced by a change in crack growth conditions, such as a change in environment...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... such that growth follows a zigzag or serrated faceted pattern, on average normal to the direction of fluctuating tension. The stage I propagation mechanism is favored in materials that exhibit planar slip and in some alloys strengthened by coherent precipitates (such as age-hardened aluminum) and under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006865
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... growth results from the rupture of fibrils at the trailing edge of a craze. As the nucleated crack increases in size, new craze matter is generated at the craze tip. Crazes are very thin, planar defects; therefore, they form a very flat and smooth fracture origin, commonly known as the mirror zone...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001028
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... indicating mode I fatigue crack progression from the top surface, apparently due to reverse bending of the sheet. (a) 385×. (b) 1925×. After the crack was opened, examination near the crack front showed that the direction of the crack growth in the lower zone was upward and outward, indicated...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are preceded by craze formation and its subsequent breakdown. The initial stage of crack growth results from the rupture of fibrils at the trailing edge of a craze. As the nucleated crack increases in size, new craze matter is generated at the craze tip. Crazes are very thin, planar defects; therefore...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... and by the textured microstructure of the wire. Corrosion on the outside surface of the wire progressed into the wire along a more or less planar front, as shown in Figure 4 . The corrosion grew more rapidly around the circumference of the wire than into the wire, due to the strong crystallographic texture...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... should ideally include the assessment of the whole component life, with the conditions for crack initiation, cyclic crack growth, and final fracture. It must be distinguished between an infinite-life design, where the number of cycles is not important, and a finite-life design, in which the cycles up...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... visual signs of creep damage can include abnormal rubbing of the blades tips due to radial growth and local regions of more heavily distressed airfoil leading edge (LE) or trailing edge (TE) surfaces from hot streaks within the engine. Unusual contact or wear of shrouded turbine blades can also indicate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... materials. The inspection of these components is substantially different from that of later fiber-reinforced material systems. It was the rapid growth of the composites industry, in both material types and applications, that spawned the need for effective nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... 14 Images from time-dependent failure of high-density polyethylene pipes showing the progressive crack-front shapes in a water pipe. (a) Thick-walled pipe (~65 mm, or 2.6 in.) failure by environmental stress cracking, showing semielliptical crack fronts. (b) Slow crack growth showing circular...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... provides clues as to whether the material is high strength (smoother) or low strength (rougher) and whether fracture occurred as a result of cyclic loading. The surfaces from fatigue crack growth are typically smoother than monotonic overload fracture areas. The monotonic overload fracture of a high...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... describes the general features of fatigue fractures in terms of crack initiation and fatigue crack propagation. brittle fracture crack initiation creep fracture deformation ductile fracture failure analysis fatigue crack growth fatigue crack propagation fatigue fracture fractography fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... provide hole nucleation in front of an advancing crack tip ( Ref 40 ). Void Growth and Coalescence The incipient cracks (voids) associated with the particles may grow by two mechanisms, depending on particle size and spacing: Growth of an incipient crack by enlargement and linkage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... that can provide hole nucleation in front of an advancing crack tip ( Ref 40 ). Void Growth and Coalescence The incipient cracks (voids) associated with the particles can grow by two mechanisms, depending on particle size and spacing: Growth of an incipient crack by enlargement and linkage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006767
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... elastic fracture mechanics analysis, with some mention of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis. The article describes the probabilistic aspects of fatigue and fracture. Information on crack-growth simulation of the material is also provided. crack-growth simulation elastic-plastic fracture...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003530
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., since every planar stress transformation leads to the same stress tensor, namely biaxial tension. Mohr's circle is a point. By improperly neglecting the third principal stress, even though it is zero, one would conclude that no shear stresses are present, when, in fact, τ max is S /2 and acts on two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001597
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... diagonally and circumferentially through the journal ( Fig. 10 and 11 ). River patterns and beach markings on these larger fatigue fracture surfaces indicate that the crack front was altered by intersection with the induction hardened case and the center of the woody fracture. In these areas, the crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in this case of intergranular failure due to stress-corrosion cracking. Transgranular brittle fracture can also occur due to a corrosive attack. Transgranular fractures resulting from environmentally assisted failure mechanisms exhibit larger, more planar features that often have a feathery, faceted...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... psi) ( Ref 6 , 25 – 27 ). The different methods for producing CNTs are as follows ( Ref 25 – 27 , 29 ): Surface-mediated growth of vertically aligned tubes by plasma-enhanced vapor deposition Chemical vapor deposition Laser ablation High-pressure carbon monoxide Arc discharge...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the previous images. This is especially true for fatigue failure where the growth of a crack occurs over an extended period of time as the piece is cycled from one stress state to another while in use. In fatigue, crack propagation occurs with each cycle, and the characteristic features associated...