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pitting corrosion

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header. It was...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Severe pitting corrosion of a carbon steel tube was observed in the air preheater of a power plant, which runs on rice straw firing. Approximately 1450 tubes were removed from Stage 3 of the preheater (air inlet and flue gas outlet) due to corrosion and local bursting. Samples from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001697
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Water treatment C12200 UNS C12200 ASTM B88 UNS C12200 Pitting corrosion Potable waters are defined as waters that are suitable for drinking purposes. Potable waters are in use throughout the United States and new systems are being installed on a daily basis. The quality of potable waters is...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract A residential subdivision near Tampa, FL was constructed in 1984 through 1985. Several sections of copper pipe were removed from one residence that had reported severe leaking. Visual examination revealed extensive pitting corrosion throughout the ID surfaces of the sample. Microscopic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048419
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Heavy pitting corrosion on type 304 stainless steel bone screw was studied. A screw head that exhibited heavy pitting corrosion attack was observed. Deep tunnels that penetrated the screw head and followed the inclusion lines were revealed. The screw was inserted in a plate made of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0060104
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... the outer surfaces. The cracking was revealed by metallographic examination to have initiated from the outer surface, frequently at pits, and penetrated the tube wall in a transgranular, branching fashion. The crack features were characteristic of chloride stress-corrosion cracking. A change in tube...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... afterward. Recommendations included revising directions for sterilization and rinsing. Aircraft components Cleaing solution Hypochlorites Nitrates Water tanks 321 UNS S32100 Surface treatment related failures Pitting corrosion Two freshwater tanks of type 321 stainless steel were removed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... bacteria. Chlorides Piping Sewer treatment systems 316L UNS S31603 Biological corrosion Pitting corrosion Type 316L (UNS S31603) austenitic stainless steel piping was installed as part of a collection system for a storm sewer treatment system used in a manufacturing facility. Within six...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Extrusions Synchroton radiation Vacuum chambers Water connections 3003 UNS A93003 6061 UNS A96061 Pitting corrosion References 1. Fontana M. , Greene N. , Corrosion Engineering , McGraw-Hill, Inc...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... environment Heat Exchanger Tubes 410 UNS S41000 Pitting corrosion Many tube bundles in a heat exchanger fabricated from AISI type 410 stainless steel experienced leakage during hydrostatic testing. The tubes had not yet been in service, and no metallurgical deficiencies that could have caused the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... formation of protective oxide films was recommended. Condenser tubes Salt water Sulfurization Aluminum brass Pitting corrosion A tube sample from an aluminum brass seawater surface condenser was received for analysis. This condenser had failed due to pitting after less than 1 year of service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001654
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... that a molybdenum-bearing stainless steel such as 316L or 317L be used instead of 321. Heat exchanger tubes Leakage 321 UNS S32100 Pitting corrosion AISI type 321 stainless steel tubes - from both a heat exchanger, used to pre-heat make-up water, and from a blow-down unit in the same...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... static radial, cyclic torsional, and cyclic bending loads. Cracking originated at corrosion pits on the smoothly finished surface and propagated as multiple small corrosion-fatigue cracks from separate nuclei. The originally noncorrosive environment (hydraulic oil) became corrosive in service because of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... large portion of the contact area. Fine corrosion pits in the periphery were observed and intense mechanical material transfer that can take place during fretting was revealed. Smearing of material layers over each other during wear was observed and attack by pitting corrosion was interpreted to be...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0051292
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... every piece of the spring were revealed by visual examination. Each of the fractures was found to be oriented at 45 deg to the wire axis. Clear evidence of pitting corrosion at the fatigue fracture origin was also observed. Free chloride ions were revealed to be present in the ink in which the spring...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... lack of resistance to pitting corrosion associated with the poor surface finishing of the stainless steel jewelry may induce localized corrosion, promoting the release of cytotoxic metallic ions (such as Cr, Ni, and Mo) in the local tissue, which can promote several types of adverse effects in the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... visual inspection/light optical microscopy, metallography, electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, chemical analysis, and mechanical testing. It was observed that the vacuum cadmium coating adjacent to the fracture plane had worn off and corroded in service, thus allowing pitting corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the inside surface of a bearing hole, and small areas of pitting corrosion were visible on the exterior surface of the fitting. The analysis also revealed a small number of rosettes, suggestive of eutectic melting, in an otherwise normal structure. These examinations and analyses support the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001542
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... time ultimately resulted in pitting of the metal. The combination of surface pitting and stress concentration at the nearby inclusions resulted in stress-corrosion cracking. Aircraft components Cylinders Landing gear Nonmetallic inclusions Stress concentration 4340 UNS G43400 Pitting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006448
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Three wing flap hinge bearings were received by the laboratory for analysis. The bearings were fabricated from chromium-plated type 440C martensitic stainless steel. The intergranular fracture pattern seen in the electron fractographs, coupled with the corrosion pits observed on the...