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pitting and holes

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... evaluation of a cross section of a copper pipe revealed extensive pitting corrosion throughout the inner diametral surfaces of the pipe. Some pits had penetrated through the wall thickness, causing the pin hole leaks. Analysis of a sample of water obtained from the subdivision revealed relatively high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001063
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... plant. Examination of tubes and tube sheets revealed pitting damage on the OD surface. Some of the pits had penetrated fully, resulting in holes. Inside diameter surfaces were free of corrosion. Macro- and microexaminations indicated that the tubes had been properly manufactured. Pitting was attributed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... adherent scale on the OD of the tubes can be attributed to the low rate of corrosion. The local dents and pits on the OD of the Stage 2 tube are shown in Fig. 15 . High magnification observation revealed holes/pores indicating the penetration of corrosive elements into the tube base metal. This suggests...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... corrosion, 3) crevice corrosion, 4) pitting, 5) intergranular corrosion, 6) selective leaching or parting, 7) erosion corrosion, and 8) stress corrosion [ 1 ]. Pitting is a form of extremely localized attack that results in holes in the metal. Pitting is one of the most destructive and insidious forms of...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... attacked by pitting corrosion. These pits are then covered by a new burnished material film that can break open again. Thus, the material is worn and degradated. Fig. 1 Fretting and fretting corrosion at the contact area between the screw hole of a type 316LR stainless steel bone plate and the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0048120
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The pawl spring which was part of a selector switch used in telephone equipment failed. The springs were blanked from 0.4 mm (0.014 in.) thick tempered 1095 steel and then nickel plated. Numerous pits around the rivet holes were revealed by microscopic examination of longitudinal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Inspection revealed a reddish-brown coating on the outside of the pipe with a few flat pitting holes and incipient cracks. Corrosion was also observed on the inner walls of the pipe, consisting of rust patches with pitting scars, branching out to predominantly transcrystalline cracks. In this case, leaking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... material, and those that exhibited a dual failure. The last category failed in the adhesive bond and also showed a type of pitting on one face of the base material. In a third case, a 2024-T4 extrusion section was found to exhibit blistering after chemical milling. The presence of interconnecting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c0045903
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... in.) from the origin along the wall of a hydraulic-oil bleed hole. Investigation with a SEM showed corrosion pits along the bleed hole wall, but oxidation and corrosion prevented review of microfractographic details. Vacuum epoxy encapsulation, sectioning of the bleed hole, and metallographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047335
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Abstract A section of cast iron water main pipe contained a hole approximately 6.4 x 3.8 cm (2.5 x 1.5 in.). The pipe was laid in clay type soil. Examination revealed severe pitting around the hole and at the opposite side of the outside diam. A macroscopic examination of a pipe section at the...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... filled with nitric acid in preparation for service. Three weeks later the two acid tanks were found to be leaking from the bottom. Samples from the spent solvent tank revealed that pitting was located in a depressed area near a suction hole, beneath a black residue. It was concluded that the acid tanks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... scans on specified areas of the tank. No indications of reportable wall loss or pitting were detected. All thickness readings were above minimum design tank-wall thickness, although several small indications of thinning were noted. The crack detection and sizing examinations revealed five previously...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract Stainless steel is frequently used for bone fracture fixation in spite of its sensitivity to pitting and cracking in chloride containing environments (such as organic fluids) and its susceptibility to fatigue and corrosion fatigue. A 316L stainless steel plate implant used for fixation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c9001664
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... broken across the eighth hole (of nine holes) from the end of the plate. The detailed metallurgical failure analysis of the device, including metallography and fractography, is reported here. It was found that the device had adequate metallurgical integrity for the application for which it was intended...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048708
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... used as a coolant. (a) Inner surface of hydraulic-oil cooler tube containing a hole (arrow A) and nodules (one of which is indicated by arrow B) formed from a corrosion product. (b) Etched section through the pit at arrow A, which penetrated the tube wall. 100x. (c) Etched section through a pit beneath...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and first to third course shell plates. Sand blasting and repainting of the bottom plates and first course shell plates was to be used as a remedial measure. However, during the sand blasting, holes and deep pitting were observed on the bottom plates. On-site visual inspection, magnetic flux leakage...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048407
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... only after a fatigue crack begins to propagate into the small plate section. A large secondary crack which had developed parallel to the main crack in the center of the surface was revealed. The fifth hole was situated at the transition between the supporting bone and the defect and hence stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048698
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... tee joint in the piping between the heat exchanger and the sieve bed failed after 12 months. A hole in the tee fitting and a corrosion product on the inner surface of the pitting was revealed by visual examination. Iron sulfide was revealed by chemical analysis of the scale which indicated hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001097
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract Two type 316L stainless steel orthopedic screws broke approximately 6 weeks after surgical implant. The screws had been used to fasten a seven-hole narrow dynamic compression plate to a patient's spine. The broken screws and screws of the same vintage and source were examined using...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0046022
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... on the inside surface of a bearing hole, and small areas of pitting corrosion were visible on the exterior surface of the fitting. The analysis also revealed a small number of rosettes, suggestive of eutectic melting, in an otherwise normal structure. These examinations and analyses support the...