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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001743
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Cylinder fatigue can result from abnormal heating in service. Fatigue can be experienced also by piston heads, exhaust valves, and turbosupercharger housings (castings). Pistons from different engines series can sometimes fit, but because of slight design modifications, they may...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001232
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... below the head. The fracture of the piston rod of Fig. 8 is also due to rubbing. As the microstructure of the fracture shows, the surface layer is not only considerably deformed by cold working, but also shows multiple cracks. Fig. 10 Vibrational fracture of a screw in the first supporting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in a Gray Iron Cylinder Head Caused by Microporosity A cracked cylinder head was removed from an engine after approximately 16,000 km (10,000 miles) of service. This cylinder head was submitted for failure analysis to determine the cause of cracking. Investigation The cylinder head was magnetic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and that they were reduced 17% when specimens having quality of ASTM E 155 level 8 were tested ( Ref 10 ). Example 1: Cracking in a Gray-Iron Cylinder Head Caused by Microporosity A cracked cylinder head was removed from an engine after approximately 16,000 km (10,000 miles) of service. This cylinder head...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
.... It was recommended that the windows be fitted with cross braces to move their natural frequencies away from the operating frequency of the conveyor and that a sound absorbing enclosure also be built around the conveyor. Case #8: Machine Tool Vibration A machine that cut chamfer on wrist pin holes on piston...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel valve head with a 5 mm threaded stem had come loose. The valve head hangs down from a piston, and when the threaded connection came loose it progressively unscrewed to the point that the valve head blocked an air exhaust port, thus causing the brakes to remain partially applied. Without knowing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is the screw. The most common extruders use either one screw (single-screw extruder, or SSE) or two screws (twin-screw extruder, or TSE). It is worth noting that some extruders do not use a screw but instead use a moveable piston to force molten polymer through a die. These are known as ram extruders. Ram...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the final step manually and then re-etch the specimen. Individual force machines have a holder that does not hold the specimen rigidly. Specimens are placed inside a hole cut into a holder, and a piston comes down and presses the specimen against the working surface. Thus, the specimens can be removed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006815
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... that a small steel valve head with a 5 mm (0.2 in.) threaded stem had come loose. The valve head hangs down from a piston, and when the threaded connection came loose, the threaded members progressively unscrewed to the point that the valve head blocked an air exhaust port, thus causing the brakes to remain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003573
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For example, the immediate cause of distortion (bending) of an automobile-engine valve stem is contact of the valve head with the piston, but the failure analyst must go beyond this immediate cause in order to recommend proper corrective measures. The valve may have stuck open because of faulty lubrication...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006797
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... head with the piston, but the failure analyst must go beyond this immediate cause in order to recommend proper corrective measures. The valve may have stuck open because of faulty lubrication; the valve spring may have broken because corrosion had weakened it. The spring may have had insufficient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...., at the junctions of bolt shanks and heads ; a crack surface contour of this type (convex with respect to the smaller section side) is almost always indicative of an abrupt change of form. The essential difference between this and the one depicted in B ( b ) is that convexity of the crack front has developed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... metallographers repeat the final step manually and then re-etch the specimen. Individual force machines have a holder that does not hold the specimen rigidly. Specimens are placed inside a hole cut into a holder, and a piston comes down and presses the specimen against the working surface. Thus, the specimens can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or unmounted metal specimens A right-angle head, electric drill motor with attachments and materials for grinding and polishing selected spots on large parts or assemblies. It is also used for driving the grinding and polishing machine described in the previous item A portable microscope, with camera...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006928
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... brittle. Above T g , plastics vary widely, but their modulus is universally lower. It is worth noting that similar dynamic mechanical analysis approaches are also used for structural characterization of damper systems, ranging from bonded elastomer assemblies to gas pistons. Impact Toughness...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... crusher or specks of dirt between a computer hard disk drive and the reading head. The imposed constraint is pivotal in the level of contact pressures generated between abrasive and wear surface. The relative motion is also directly affected. In some cases, the trapped body may roll much more than...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... crusher or specks of dirt between a computer hard disk drive and the reading head. The imposed constraint is pivotal in the level of contact pressures generated between abrasive and wear surface. The relative motion is also directly affected. In some cases, the trapped body may roll much more than...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Distress damages Vibration Short/open circuit Failed components Sleeve bearing Seal Coupling Shaft Pinion/ball/turning gear Casing Rotor Impeller Shroud Piston Diaphragm Wheel Blades; foil, root, shroud Labyrinth Thrust bearing Pivoted pad bearing Roller/ball bearing Cross-head piston Cylinder...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2