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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Catastrophic pitting corrosion occurred in type 304L stainless steel pipe flange assemblies in an industrial food processor. During regular service the pumped medium was pureed vegetables. In situ maintenance procedures included cleaning of the assemblies with a sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract A section of type 304 stainless steel pipe from a stand by system used for emergency injection of cooling water to a nuclear reactor failed during precommissioning. Leaking occurred in only one spot. Liquid penetrant testing revealed a narrow circumferential crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001699
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... a recirculating capacity of about 44,000 gal (166,000 L) of water. It consisted primarily of steel pipes fitted with threaded connectors on the 2 in. (46 cm) pipes and bolted flanged couplings on the larger pipes. Seven years following the completion of the mall, corrosion problems were noted at the outer...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048747
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... for a circulating-water system at a cooling tower fractured in service; a manifold section cracked where a Y-shaped connection had been welded. The steel pipe was made to ASTM A 53 specifications. Fig. 1 Carbon steel discharge line at a cooling tower that failed because of poor fit-up at Y-joint and poor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract A 150 mm (6 in.) schedule 80S type 304 stainless steel pipe (11 mm, or 0.432 in., wall thickness), which had served as an equalizer line in the primary loop of a pressurized-water reactor, was found to contain several circumferential cracks 50 to 100 mm (2 to 4 in.) long. Two...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0048117
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of inclusions. Torsional fracture was indicated by the presence of beach marks at a 45 deg angle to the wire axis. It was established that the spring fractured by fatigue nucleated at the subsurface defect. Nonmetallic inclusions Shrinkage pipe Valve springs 6150 (Chromium-vanadium alloy steel UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract A steel socket pipe conduit NW 150 cracked open during pressure testing next to the weld seam almost along the entire circumference. The crack occurred in part in the penetration notch and in part immediately adjacent to it. While the uncracked pipe showed the light etch...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract An 8 in. diam stainless steel black liquor feed pipe to a carbon steel digester had failed within one year of service. The material was type 316 molybdenum-containing austenitic stainless steel. The service environment was alkaline black liquor at 175 deg C (350 deg F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001043
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A 76 mm (3 in.) type 304 stainless steel tube that was used as a heat shield and water nozzle support in a hydrogen gas plant quench pot failed in a brittle manner. Visual examination of a sample from the failed tube showed that one lip of the section was eroded from service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001060
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A type 316 stainless steel pipe reducer section failed in service of bleached pulp stock transfer within 2 years in a pulp and paper mill. The reducer section fractured in the heat-affected zone of the flange-to-pipe weld on the flange side. The pipe reducer section consisted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001061
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Schedule 80 low-carbon steel pipes used to transfer kraft liquor in a Kamyr continuous pulp digester failed within 18 months after installation. Visual and metallographic examinations established that the cracking initiated on the internal surfaces of the equalizer pipes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... was never explained. Fig. 4 Several larger cracks through the pipe wall. Examination of metallographically prepared cross sections of the spool piece revealed microstructures of normalized low-carbon steel—namely, pearlite and ferrite. The cracks were intergranular and contained multiple...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract A case of continual product refinement stimulated by product failures was described. Brittle fracture of gas transmission line pipe steels occurred demonstrating a poor combination of materials, environment, manufacturing and installation problems, and loads. Initial efforts...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
...Abstract Abstract A pipe in a chip conveyor cracked at the toe of an exterior fillet weld connecting a flange to the pipe. The chip conveyor consisted of several spool sections. Each section was made up of a length of low-alloy steel pipe and two flanges, which were welded to each end...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... pipe steel, approximately 22 cm (8.7 in.) OD x 0.5 cm (0.2 in.) wall thickness, which was electric resistance welded along the longitudinal seam. The pressure at the time and location of the failure was 2760 kPa, which corresponds to 20% of the specified minimum yield strength. The cause of failure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001168
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract Steel pipes, used for years in a food factory soft water preheater, were found to leak as a result of corrosion. The pipes, made of 18/8 steel, were immersed in steam maintained at 0.5 atm and 150 deg C. They carried desalinated process water, heating it to approximately 100...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001425
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of manufacture and that service conditions had served to extend the defects. Scarf joints Steam pipes Weld defects Welded steel Joining-related failures Two rather unusual failures investigated by the Company concerned the use of scarfwelded pipe produced just after the last war...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091201
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...Abstract Abstract Type 316L (UNS S31603) austenitic stainless steel piping was installed as part of a storm-sewer treatment collection system in a manufacturing facility. Within six months of start-up, leaks were discovered. Investigation (on-site current flow testing, visual inspection, water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract An austenitic stainless steel (type 316/316L stainless steel, schedule 40, 64 mm (2.5 in.) diam and larger) piping network used in the fire-sprinkler system in a large saltwater passenger and car ferry failed by rapid leaking. Operating conditions involved stagnant seawater...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... little or no effect. The cases examined show that knowledge is incomplete in regard to graphitization, and the prediction of its occurrence is not yet possible. pressure vessels piping creep deformation cracking high temperatures low alloy steel cracking perforations metallographic...