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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001610
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
...Abstract Abstract This investigation characterizes five surgical stainless steel piercings and one niobium piercing that caused adverse reactions during use, culminating with the removal of the jewelry. Chemical composition shows that none of the materials are in accordance with ISO standards...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... that the cracking was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: residual forming and service stresses; the concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots; and preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional condensation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001446
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., probably originating as a secondary pipe in the ingot which was subsequently displaced and forced into the wall of the vessel during the piercing operation. Gas cylinders Radiography Ultrasonic testing Low-alloy steel Transgranular fracture Metalworking-related failures The presence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001454
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... steel plate. Some of the blisters were pierced by drilling a hole in the center and at the same time applying a small flame. In several cases combustion of the escaping gas caused minor explosions, a result characteristic of hydrogen. Etching showed the material to be a low-carbon steel in the partly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001290
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... instruments in the cockpit. There was a hole in the backrest of the observer's seat, which was situated between the toilet wall and the pilot's seat. The backrest of the pilot's seat also had a hole pierced through it ( Fig. 2d ). In the passenger cabin, the plastic panel in front of the left front row...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001445
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
.... In the majority of ingots, the shrinkage cavity or pipe is normally axial and, during the piercing operation, the lower end of it is displaced to the top of the ingot, to be removed when the ingot is cropped. However, if the ingot should be laid on its side or be knocked over before solidification is complete...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001360
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... greatly reduces the ductility of the steel and increases its notch sensitivity. After the stainless steel strip is roller to extra full hard temper, the blades are blanked and the rivet holes are pierced. The blades are then lightly rolled to impart a slight curvature. Finally, the blades are stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c9001631
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
.... The fisherman pulls once, twice, then three times on the line. The hook fragments and part of the hook careens like a rocket back toward the fisherman. With no time for the fisherman to react, the metal fragment pierces his left eye and embeds in his skull. During examination at the hospital, the doctors...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001363
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... stop of the tunnel was activated. By that time, the rotor had reached speeds beyond the structural limits of the blade retention straps and quickly self-destructed. One blade tore loose and pierced the top of the test section. Because of the imbalance created, the remaining rotor and mast assembly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... A photomicrograph of the flow forming machine is shown in Fig. 2 . The preform—a thick walled starting material for flow forming—was fabricated by forging (both upsetting and drawing), piercing with tapered punches, and mandrel forging, followed by hardening and tempering. Fig. 2 Four-axis CNC flow forming...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... a box-shaped cross section consisting of two column legs and a horizontal box member ( Fig. 14 ). The top flanges of the plate girders pass over the top flanges of the boxes. The bottom flanges pierce the boxes through flame-cut slots near the bottom of the box side plates. In the cracked bents...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... molds or by continuous casting techniques. Primary deformation processes, such as hot rolling, tube piercing, extrusion, and open-die forging, are then used for converting the cast structure. Many large open-die forgings are forged directly from ingots, while most closed-die and upset forgings...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001814
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001820
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of an ingot in the case of inclusions or a lamination in the steel, (2) foreign objects, such as parts of rolls or rolling equipment, being pushed into the steel during hot rolling, or (3) hot tears that form, particularly during piercing and rolling of relatively thin-wall large-diameter seamless pipe. All...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation prior to working Residual-stress cracking due to flowforming Lüders lines due to forming strain rate Microstructural damage due to shearing, blanking, piercing Overheating damage during spring winding Laps and cracks due to shot peening Stress-corrosion cracking due to use...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with the sharp angles of cutouts. Avoid a sharp corner at the bottom of small openings, such as in drawing or piercing dies, because spalling or flaking is likely to result at these points. Keep hubs of gears, cutters, and so on as near the same thickness as possible, because dishing is likely to occur...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... The cracking was produced by stress corrosion as the combined result of: Residual forming and service stresses The concentration of tensile stress at outer square corners of the pierced slots Preferential corrosive attack along the grain boundaries as a result of high humidity and occasional...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1