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physical vapor deposition

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract A major cause of failure in components subjected to rolling or rolling/sliding contacts is contact fatigue. This article focuses on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) performance and failure modes of overlay coatings such as those deposited by physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... etching, plating a thin layer (usually 0.025 to 0.076 mm, or 0.001 to 0.003 in.) of silver onto each surface by physical vapor deposition, assembling the parts inside a stainless steel can, evacuating and sealing the can, and isostatically compressing the can and its contents at elevated temperature...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627081801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... magnetic coating is then sputtered by physical vapor deposition process or electrolytically or electroless deposited. In order to protect this magnetic film, which stores the data, a thin carbon film is sputtered. The carbon film acts both as a protective film and lubricant. The carbon overcoat, in its...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... polytetrafluoroethylene PU polyurethane PVC polyvinyl chloride PVD physical vapor deposition PWHT postweld heat treated q notch sensitivity Q activation energy r notch radius R Rankine constant R radius of curvature Ra average roughness RA reduction in area RCA root-cause analysis RCF rolling-contact fatigue RCM...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... or a combination of ceramic and metal (cermet) materials, which are much harder than the underlying steel substrate ( Ref 136 ). Three major techniques are used for these coatings: physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, and thermal spray. Physical Vapor Deposition Coatings Overlay coatings...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001281
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...-water rinse. The water wash chemicals vaporized before they reached the stage 1 HPT nozzles. The highest-boiling-point constituent boils at roughly 315 to 370 °C (600 to 700 °F). The engine was also washed each time it was taken off-line for maintenance. The gas turbine was brought up to cranking speed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... process. The basic cause of degradation was found to be hot corrosion caused by the deposition of alkali sulfates and chlorides. However this degradation may have been aggravated by thermal cycling and abrasion. The source of the salt was impurities in the flux. Two potential solutions were proposed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 28 ). These contaminants combine in the gas phase to form alkali metal sulfates; if the temperature of the alloy is below the dewpoint of the alkali sulfate vapors and above the sulfate melting points, molten sulfate deposits are formed ( Ref 28 ). Molten sodium sulfate is the principal agent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... + + 4 e → 2 H 2 O Oxygen reduction (neutral or basic solutions): (Eq 11) O 2 + 2 H 2 O + 4 e → 4 OH − Metal-ion reduction: (Eq 12) M 3 + + e → M 2 + Metal deposition: (Eq 13) M + + e → M Hydrogen evolution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Tavares S.S.M. : Failure analysis of AISI 310S plate in an inert gas generator used in off-shore oil platform . Eng. Fail. Anal. 18 , 1435 – 1444 ( 2011 ) 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2011.04.005 8. Pickering F.B. : Physical Metallurgy and the Design of Steels . Applied Science...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the formation of volatile metal chlorides. If conditions permit, evaporative weight loss can occur due to the high vapor pressures of iron and chromium chlorides. Chlorides accumulate rapidly on metallic surfaces from burning plastic waste. Typical deposits contain 21 to 27% Cl when the flue gas contains 40...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...):  O 2 + 4 H + + 4 e − → 2 H 2 O (Eq 11) Oxygen reduction (neutral or basic solutions):  O 2 + 2 H 2 O + 4 e − → 4 OH − (Eq 12) Metalion reduction:  M 3 + + e − → M 2 + (Eq 13) Metal deposition:  M...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... dissolved in acid and analyzed by atomic absorption. The composition of the white deposit was as follows: 26.4% Al, 1.84% Hg, and 226 ppm Zn. This white residue was identified as aluminum oxide, which resulted from the reaction of an aluminum mercury solid solution with atmospheric oxygen and/or water vapor...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... those chemical and physical properties that make them applicable for structures, or as components of systems, that are exposed to environments above 538 °C (1000 °F).” Nowadays, refractories are made of not only oxides and nonoxide compounds (carbides, nitrides, and carbons), but also of metallic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001099
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and treated compatible coatings to avoid corrosion and hydrogen evolution at the dissimilar metal junctions. Applications Commercial refrigeration equipment cools a system below the temperature of its surroundings using a closed-circuit vapor-compression thermodynamic cycle, wherein the cooling...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001143
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... Deposits containing these chemicals can therefore occur in the HP or IP turbine and should be a point of investigation. In deciding whether excessive levels of a deposit are present, care must be taken in using physical and chemical equilibrium theory as a basis for the estimate. The steam velocities...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is frequently associated with failure in steam power plant equipment, but the active corrosive agent is not always obvious. Consequently, collection and preservation of corrosion products (particularly loose, flaky, or powdery deposits) may be of vital importance, because chemical analysis of corrosion products...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... but slow enough to minimize distortion Contamination Organic contamination (hydraulic fluids) Increases cooling rate during vapor phase Increases cooling rate during convection Increases tendency toward cracking and distortion Oxidation Increases viscosity Slows...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... parameters. The Hildebrand solubility parameter is the square root of the cohesive energy density, the later being the energy required to vaporize one mol of a liquid ( Ref 1 ). Solubility parameter values for both low molecular weight liquids and polymeric materials are tabulated in many references ( Ref 2...