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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... presented subsequently follows the basic approach of the scientific method as used in the physical sciences. This includes the definition of the problem, collection of data, analysis of data, development of a hypothesis, and testing and selection of the appropriate hypothesis. Often, investigations...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the information collected. Testing of the hypothesis may be done by cognitive reasoning, modeling techniques, or actual experimentation. The need for modeling or physical testing depends on the circumstances of each individual accident. The difficulty of recreating an accident is often underestimated...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003518
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... an investigation of documentation and a series of physical tests. This Volume focuses on the definition of and requirements for a professionally performed failure analysis of a physical object or structure. However, many of the concepts for investigation that are described in this Section have much greater...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006754
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., someone should determine if the correct material was used and if it was processed properly. This often requires both an investigation of documentation and a series of physical tests. This Volume focuses on the definition of and requirements for a professionally performed failure analysis of a physical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006762
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... preparation is required prior to writing a report, regardless of the format. The author must compile all information generated during the investigation and review the data. Many investigators find it helpful to assemble all pertinent data, such as photographs, spectra, and mechanical and physical test results...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001092
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... Abstract An AISI 4320 H transfer gear shaft that was part of a transmission sustained severe surface damage after 12 h of dynamometer testing at various gearing and torque loads. The damage was characterized by generalized wear and spalling. Examination of a cross section of the shaft...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and to limit reliance solely on stress analysis without corresponding physical testing. Functional Testing Part design is often an iterative process in which prototype designs which exist on paper or in CAD software programs need to be evaluated in the physical world. This evaluation can take many forms...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and as-built constructions can be determined for later comparison against building schematics. Destructive Examination Destructive examination of a component is arguably the most complicated portion of the failure analysis process. Activities range from functional testing to physically cutting...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... factors to evaluate carefully. Temperature not only affects physical properties such as impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness, and fatigue, but it also affects chemical resistance and all long-term properties. Therefore, it is highly recommended to test the candidate material at the maximum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... method, and the test data generated. An awareness of the mechanical and physical properties of the polymer material is invaluable in understanding the test results and for troubleshooting. Cost of fabrication and testing/test facility requirements Knowledge of factors that affect data reliability...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cycle fatigue associated with cyclic temperature changes from normal service. The design of the part and the material selection were significant contributing factors because of stresses induced during molding, physical aging of the amorphous polysulfone resin, and the substantial differential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... affected the safety of the product. Physical Evidence—Product Inspection and Testing At the root of every engineering evaluation is a consideration of all available physical evidence about the product performance and condition immediately preceding the time of and immediately following the incident...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... uniform contact area that is scuffed the full length of the pattern. The entire pinion head is black due to a heavy coating of iron-manganese-phosphate. Physical Examination Magnetic-Particle Inspection Magnetic-particle inspection revealed no indication of cracking. Surface Hardness Testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001054
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... at the bond. The failures appeared to be predominantly located between the silver layer and the uranium substrate. Normal fracture location of specimens taken from similar components was at the silver/silver bond interface. Laboratory testing revealed that the uranium/silver joint was susceptible to premature...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... markings: Pinion markings: Part. Part number (not disclosed). L-9. Manufactured in December 1969. L9-211. Mated with gear as set no. 211 in December 1969. #1. The first set mated and tested for the order being processed. 6–38, Set ratio; pinion 6 teeth, gear 38 teeth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001048
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... were examined in detail. The tubes had been manufactured by the seamless process as per ASTM A-213 under third-party inspection. They were within the dimensional tolerances and passed chemical, physical, hydrostatic, eddy current, and intergranular corrosion tests. Performance of Other Parts in Same...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... depending on what information is desired, for chemical analysis and microhardness testing or other destructive testing such as mechanical and physical testing. The combined results of the NDE and destructive testing can ultimately present the most complete case for determining the mode, location...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... it is the only visual means of tying all other physical and metallurgical tests together. After it has been determined which procedures are to be followed and why, the results are observed: Final Analysis All physical and metallurgical characteristics were well within specified standards, and both...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Optical testing of plastics includes the characterization of materials and the analysis of optical components. If a material is tested for transmission, haze, yellowness, and refractive index, the knowledge of its optical properties is nearly complete. For optical components, surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006870
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... not be an acceptable design for this application. Furthermore, additional analytical testing indicated that the failed part shown in Fig. 4 contained regrind/recycle material (inferior in physical properties compared with virgin rubber) along with higher nonreinforcing filler loadings (leading to inferior physical...