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physical constants

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, can limit their use in many applications. A combination of chemical and physical factors, along with stress, usually leads to a serious deterioration in properties, even if stress...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006941
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., as well as the dependence of the viscoelastic character of a plastic on chemical, physical, and compositional variables. By examining the viscoelastic behavior of plastics, the information obtained are then applied in situations in which it may be important to anticipate the long-term properties...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... analytical (empirical, physical, or chemical) models. For the analytical model to be useful, the relationship between exposure and changes in material structure and properties should include degradation rates; dependence on environmental factors such as temperature, pressure, moisture content, or applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., pultrusion, and calendering. The anisotropy of physical properties that accompanies orientation must be considered. Of paramount concern are the dimensional instabilities that arise from anisotropic CTEs. Physical aging, which is also examined, is the process by which plastics cooled below the T g...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006944
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... holding the material together is the result of intermolecular forces of attraction, such as covalent forces, van der Waals forces, and hydrogen bonding. The physical properties of these polymers are a consequence of their long chain lengths or high molecular weights. In some polymeric materials, a portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a long-term constant service load. The resulting stress on the material may result from constant internal pressure or constant displacement, such as in the scenario of a compressed rubber gasket that is part of a mechanical seal. The manufacturers of polymeric products are increasingly being asked...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... thermosetting resins as well as the curing process. Then, the techniques to characterize the physical properties of cured thermosets and composites are presented. Several examples of stress-strain curves are shown for thermosets and thermoplastic polymers. differential scanning calorimetry dynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001091
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... it was installed in the unit, was in constant tension. The magnitude of the tensile force was unknown. The shaft reportedly was designed to rotate at constant speed (7500 rev/min) during normal service. Pertinent Specifications The shaft material was specified to he ASTM A193-83a grade B7 steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cycle fatigue associated with cyclic temperature changes from normal service. The design of the part and the material selection were significant contributing factors because of stresses induced during molding, physical aging of the amorphous polysulfone resin, and the substantial differential...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001279
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... were reportedly the third and fourth tubes from the front of the ninth pendant in Unit 1, and are identified as Tube 3 and Tube 4. Tube 3 contained a longitudinal rupture. Visual Examination of General Physical Features The tubes were examined visually and photographed as received for analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006934
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... crystallinity, the impact of the temperature on the creep strain is equivalent to the impact of the percentage of the crystallinity on the creep strain in these polymers, at a constant temperature and stress level ( Ref 3 , 4 ). Creep in Polymers Creep and Viscoelasticity Creep tests consist...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006781
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of TMF are testing in which temperature and mechanical loading must be independently controlled, intelligent application of TMF results to life prediction, and using physics-based models that incorporate the dominant interactions as a guide for extrapolating life prediction to regimes that preclude...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001042
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-magnification stereomicroscope (7 to 30×) was used to observe both of the failed surfaces. One failure surface was submitted for investigation by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to corroborate the hypothesis of failure by fatigue. Visual Examination of General Physical Features Low-power examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001081
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... No. cracked 1 0 2 0 3 0 4 2 5 109 6 19 7 81 8 6 Visual Examination of General Physical Features Long cracks in a number of disk bolt hole regions were visible with the naked eye. No evidence of component distortion or component discoloration (indicative...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... , 6 ). The dn/dt values in Table 1 are specified at or near room temperature and would increase with increasing temperature. Physical properties of principal optical plastics Table 1 Physical properties of principal optical plastics Properties Methyl methacrylate Polystyrene...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006930
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is that the shear rate, shear strain, and shear stress are constant throughout the gap. This can be beneficial when steady state flow testing is being performed. However, sometimes there can be challenges when cone and plate geometry is used with high molecular weight materials because of the geometric requirements...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is proportional to the load pressing these two surfaces together ( Ref 3 ). The constant of proportionality can be defined as the friction coefficient, μ: (Eq 1) μ = F f F N where F f is the force of friction and F N is the normal force, or normal load ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Diagram...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001295
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... conditions was the major cause of failure. Recommendations emphasized the need for a suitable shock absorber to be fitted at the constant-tensioning device of the winch system. Military applications Military planes Shock loading Fe-0.8C (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture Background...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is shown in Fig. 2b . Fig. 2 ( a ) The rolling elements (balls) of the ball bearing. ( b ) Flaking damage on the surface of some of the balls of the bearing No physical damage was noticed on the inner ring of the ball bearing. The inner ring is shown in Fig. 3a . However, careful...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... The effects of molecular weight on physical and mechanical properties are explained by the concentration of chain ends and by the phenomenon of entanglement. Below a certain critical (average) molecular weight ( M c ), the polymer chains are able to flow past one another. Longer chains are held up...