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physical aging

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., pultrusion, and calendering. The anisotropy of physical properties that accompanies orientation must be considered. Of paramount concern are the dimensional instabilities that arise from anisotropic CTEs. Physical aging, which is also examined, is the process by which plastics cooled below the T g...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001593
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... cycle fatigue associated with cyclic temperature changes from normal service. The design of the part and the material selection were significant contributing factors because of stresses induced during molding, physical aging of the amorphous polysulfone resin, and the substantial differential...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Mechanisms in Polymeric Materials Once the product failure type is defined, the principal and physical material aging mechanisms that are potentially responsible for that cause of failure must be understood. This is perhaps the most important part of the process, as any error or omission in this step...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006938
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-40% reduction in strength for both materials at 0 °C (32 °F) ( Ref 1 ) ( Fig. 1 ). These environmental conditions can play a significant role in altering the material performance of a part through reversible changes, such as physical aging or transitions between viscoelastic regimes, or permanent...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and their response to chemical, physical, and mechanical stresses whether as an unfilled, shaped article or as a component of a composite structure. It summarizes the basic thermal properties of thermoplastics and thermosets, including thermal conductivity, temperature resistance, thermal expansion, specific heat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003504
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that restores the capability of an item at or before a specified interval (age limit), regardless of its condition at the time, to a level that provides a tolerable probability of survival to the end of another specified interval Secondary functions Functions that a physical asset or system has to fulfill...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006817
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-CENTERED MAINTENANCE (RCM) is a systematic methodology for preventing failures. It is a specific process used to identify the policies that must be implemented to manage the failure modes that could cause the functional failure of any physical asset in a given operating context ( Ref 1 ). In its present...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract Accelerated life testing and aging methodologies are increasingly being used to generate engineering data for determining material property degradation and service life (or fitness for purpose) of plastic materials for hostile service conditions. This article presents an overview...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001096
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... examination indicated brittle fracture caused by strain aging. Replacement of all studs on the man hole cover and examination of the boiler steel in other places were recommended. Steam engines Strain aging EN2 Brittle fracture Background A stud that was part of a manhole cover on an old...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the connection between chemical and physical aging of polymers. The detection of weathering degradation using analytical methods such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance, or ultraviolet/visible spectroscopy has the potential to decrease material and product development...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a wide variation in their physical, mechanical, chemical resistance, and aging properties, the use of the wrong resin can yield detrimental results in many applications. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited for the identification of polymers that have different molecular structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the physics and math associated with moisture-related failures in plastic components. It develops key equations, showing how they are used to analyze the causes and effects of water uptake, diffusion, and moisture concentration in polymeric...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... variation in their physical, mechanical, chemical resistance, and aging properties, the use of the wrong resin can yield detrimental results in many applications. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited for the identification of polymers having different molecular structures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article presents a general overview of outdoor weather aging factors, their effects on the performance of polymeric materials, and the accelerated test methods that can be used to investigate those effects. These test methods are used to characterize material performance when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... condition, is 75 BHN according to ASTM’s standard B26. Fig. 6 Sectioned right-side fork leg A T5 temper for AA 712.0 can be achieved by aging at 24 °C for 21 days or by aging at 157 °C (±5 °C) for 6–8 h, according to ASTM’s standard B917 [ 2 ]. This will produce the following minimum...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... analysis Objective type Possible rationale Product life cycle stage Product development Market demands Prototyping Product improvement Warranty costs Ongoing Assignment of responsibility Financial/physical damage or injury reparations After subject event Prevention of recurrence...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001100
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... mode with cleavage and ductile, dimpled shear. Hardness values as high as 35 HRC were measured in the bend area. The as-galvanized bolts fractured in a brittle manner. Failure was attributed to improper bending of the bolts, which provided a severely cold-worked bend area susceptible to strain-age...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur when...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and carbon–chromium–molybdenum steels in which the carbides formed have a composition M x C y . Over-aging promotes the coalescence of the small carbides formed from the pearlite decomposition and prolonged aging leads to a structure of ferrite with an almost uniform distribution of spheroidized carbides...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006926
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract The susceptibility of plastics to environmental failure, when exposed to organic chemicals, can limit their use in many applications. A combination of chemical and physical factors, along with stress, usually leads to a serious deterioration in properties, even if stress...