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photo-oxidative degradation

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... oxidation mechanism has been extensively studied ( Ref 27 ). The saturated polymer chain can be degraded via a photooxidation process. The hydrogen atom at the tertiary carbon atom is abstracted by radical reaction. Follow-up reactions can include cross linking or the formation of a tertiary hydroperoxide...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... and formulation with low absorption can degrade deeper into the material bulk. Surface degradation by photooxidation often leads to chalking: the formation of a loose, chalk-like surface residue that consist of oxidation products and residual pigments (e.g., titanium dioxide, calcium carbonate, carbon black...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the surface oxide layer (Cr2O3), triggering a succession of reactions that led to pitting and the formation of craters. Heat exchangers Metal dusting Radiant pipes HK-40 UNS J94204 High-temperature corrosion and oxidation Metal dusting is a corrosion-like degradation mechanism by means...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of degradation that occurs at low temperatures. Based on the results of the investigation, which included SEM/EDS analysis, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction, the metal surfaces contained less than 0.1% Bi and thus were not adequately protected against tin pest, which was confirmed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to prevention of corrosion or bacterial degradation due to water. They are used in food packaging and industrial coatings. Some examples are metal oxides, bio-based pullulan, polymer-grafted silica, and filled latex, among many others ( Ref 55 – 58 ). Flow and Leveling Agents Flow and leveling additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H + → Zn 2 + + H 2 Zinc reacts with the hydrogen ions of the acid solution to form zinc ions and hydrogen gas. Equation 2 shows that during the reaction, zinc is oxidized to zinc ions, and hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen. Thus, Eq 2 can be conveniently...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006912
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... lowered the cost and time for determining these data to very reasonable levels. Although most of these properties have been previously discussed, a few additional facts should be stated: Environmental stress-cracking resistance (ESCR) Fatigue Ultraviolet degradation Oxidation Wear...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006942
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... failure mechanisms, such as creep and fatigue, are time dependent and may not manifest themselves in these studies. Other mechanisms, such as photo-oxidation and environmental stress cracking, manifest themselves only when the product is used in a particular environment which presents difficulties...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003541
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the deterioration of mechanical properties due to photo-degradative effects ( Ref 5 ): Polymer Relative resistance Polymethyl methacrylate n Polyacrylonitrile n Polyoxymethylene m Polyethylene m Polyvinyl chloride n Polystyrene w Nylon 6 m Polypropylene vs Polycarbonate s...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001702
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... for features that indicated the presence of reaction products characteristic of alkali-silica reactions, alkali-carbonate reactions (ACR), ettringite formation, gypsum formation, carbonation, and/or oxidation. Concrete reaction products may fill cracks, pores, and voids, occasionally pushing aggregate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006937
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... On thicker sections, this material would have a blue-gray appearance. Fig. 3 Spectral transmission of three plastics This same type of yellowness occurs when plastics are degraded, either during processing or from long-term exposure to heat or damaging radiation from ultraviolet or shorter...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... “failure analysis” was introduced. Fig. 1 Crash of the Wright Flyer, 1908. Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Photo A-42555-A Unfortunately, there are many dramatic examples of catastrophic failures that result in injury, loss of life, and damage...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to enlarge a specific area in the photo, such as a crack or other small detail. A metallographic microscope with macroobjectives and lights may be used for somewhat higher magnifications. However, depth of field becomes extremely limited with light optics. For much greater depth of field, a SEM may be used...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006927
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...? Will the chemical cause an oxidation reaction, a polymer degradation, or simply a discoloration of the surface? Finally, the stress state of the material must be considered. Is the part stress-free during exposure? Is it loaded in tension or in compression, or subject to torsion and bending? Most plastic materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006864
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... extruders are most useful for processing materials that degrade at or near the extrusion temperature. They are also commonly used for extruding materials with a very low coefficient of friction, such as ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and typically run at very slow...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...” was introduced. Fig. 1 Crash of the Wright Flyer, 1908. Courtesy of the National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution, Photo A-42555-A Unfortunately, there are many dramatic examples of catastrophic failures that result in injury, loss of life, and damage to property. For example...