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phosphoric acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0091358
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., containing citric and phosphoric acids and having a pH of 2.4 to 2.5. Investigation (visual inspection, chemical analysis, immersion testing in the soft drink, and 100x unetched micrographs) supported the conclusion that the failure was caused by the size and distribution of sulfide stringers in the alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0091655
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the piece. Investigation (visual inspection, on-site radiographic inspection, limited ultrasonic inspection, chemical analysis, 53x metallographic cross sections and SEM images etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid) supported the conclusion that the cracking mechanism was intergranular SCC. No recommendations were...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 Polished-and-etched cross section through the failed safe-end of the recirculation inlet nozzle. Note the intergranular nature of the failure. Etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid. 53× More
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 35 Polished-and-etched cross section through the failed safe-end of the recirculation inlet nozzle. Note the intergranular nature of the failure. Etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid. 53× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 Polished-and-etched cross section through the failed safe-end of the recirculation inlet nozzle. Note the intergranular nature of the failure. Etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid. 53× More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 78 Polished-and-etched cross section through the failed safe-end of the recirculation inlet nozzle. Note the intergranular nature of the failure. Etched in 8:1 phosphoric acid. Original magnification: 53× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001283
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...% phosphoric acid was performed on the microspecimens. Although normal constituents were easily identified by changes in their respective colors, the remaining particles were unchanged, suggesting the presence of segregation. SEM examination of the segregated particles concentrated along the crack path...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048801
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the fracture edge of a longitudinal weld sample ranged from 70 to 80 HRB. Several sections were cut from the fracture-surface samples and prepared for both optical microscopy and SEM. The rust spots were removed with phosphoric acid, which also removed or attacked some of the other corrosion products...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0006402
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... layer was stripped from the panels using a phosphoric-chromic acid solution, the evidence of sulfur disappeared. This same stripping procedure did not remove the black corrosion product. Energy-dispersive analysis of the corrosion product revealed the presence of iron, calcium, phosphorus...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.machtools.c9001154
EISBN: 978-1-62708-223-5
... by grooves or surface defects. Fig. 1 Fracture of piston rod of 180 mm diameter. approx. 2 3 ×. Fig. 2 Transverse section parallel to fracture, etch: Hot chloric acid 1:1. approx. 2 3 ×. Fig. 3 Flaky cracks in unetched transverse section. 100 × Fig...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001304
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... cleaned with acetone and methanol, followed by ultrasonic cleaning in a bath containing 5% phosphoric acid solution. The individual chemistries of the diffuser cone, diffuser intake flange, diffuser exit flange, expansion bellows, and bellows intake and exit flanges were also determined by inductively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Silicon 0.3 1.0 max. Manganese 1.6 2.0 max. Phosphor 0.015 0.025 max. Sulfur <0.001 0.10 max. Nitrogen 0.07 0.10 max. Chromium 17.2 17.0–19.0 Molybdenum 2.90 2.25–3.0 Nickel 14.1 13.0–15.0 Copper 0.09 0.50 max. Iron Balance Balance According...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment and is carried away or produces a loosely adherent, porous coating now greater in thickness. Because of the porosity in the oxidation (rust), this metal is still considered active or able to continue degrading. Coating specialists have been able to formulate a phosphoric-acid-based compound...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phosphoric-acid-based compound that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense, insulated, tightly adherent passive films from uniform...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., especially carbon dioxide and oxygen, which cause corrosion in the inner surfaces of the boilers. Increasing the water pH, thus avoiding inner corrosion in the boilers. Corrosion in Boilers In general, some factors can accelerate the corrosion process in boilers: acid pH; differential...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of cleaning agents, in order of progressively greater potential to destroy evidence of how the damage occurred, is: Air Soft brush Water Soap and water Alcohol Acetone Detergent (Alconox, Alconox, Inc.) Buffered acid (HCl with thiourea) ( Ref 1 ) Silicone-based materials, epoxy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001720
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... varied for phosphorous (P) from a trace to 0.1%, silicon (Si) from a trace to 0.5% with most grades between 0.05 – 0.30% and sulfur (S) from a trace to 0.1% with most grades between 0.01 – 0.05%. Examination of Table 1 indicates that all of the steels contain less than 0.05% P and satisfy the maximum...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...% nitric acid at 60 °C for 5 min in a water bath followed by gentle cleaning with trichloroethylene. These coupons were autoclaved at 121 °C at 15 psi for 15 min. The autoclaved coupons were immersed in calcium precipitating bacterial culture system described above over a period of 2–3 weeks...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...