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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment chemical...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 10 An enlarged view showing the thick manganese phosphate layer (arrows) that was applied on the inner surface of the fractured truck beam. 500× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 (SEM) micrograph of the manganese phosphate crystals at the bottom of the corrosion pit. 500× More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... Abstract The power-type counterbalance spring, formed from hardened-and-tempered carbon steel strip and subsequently subjected to phosphating treatment, fractured at the two locations during fatigue testing. A rust colored dark band at the inside edge of the fracture surface was disclosed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... failed during installation due to the presence of preexisting defects. Crack surfaces were found to be corroded and phosphate coated, indicating that the cracks occurred during manufacture. Installation, which presumably entailed some axial extension, resulted in ductile overload failure at the crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... intergranular cracks were found emanating from the bottom of the pit and branched inward as shown in Figure 9 . The morphology and crack propagation pattern were characteristic of SCC. Detailed examination of the pit showed traces of manganese phosphate coating that was applied as primer on the inner surface...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 A back scattered image (BSE) of the pit in Figure 12 . The light grey area marked by the arrow in the centre represents manganese phosphate coating. 20× More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 A composite micrograph showing the profile of the corrosion pit. The arrow from the dotted line marks the depth of the pit. The second arrow in the middle marks the manganese phosphate coating. More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 5 (a) Section through wall of plain carbon steel bomb after 24-hr exposure at 950 F to concentrated high free-caustic solution. Corroding surface, at left, shows absence of carbides and presence of voids. (b) Same as (a) except solution was high in phosphate and low in caustic. 100× More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Fourier transform infrared spectra of unknown white solids in a tank under investigation (bottom spectrum) was matched to ferric phosphate in the software spectral library (top spectrum). The table, populated by the software, indicates the hit quality index (HQI), the library used More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of elemental copper and, in some instances, some Fe 2 O 3 (which probably formed after shut-down). Only thin, tightly-adherent films of magnetite were observed on the steam-sides. These desuperheaters were operating in boiler water said [1] to contain enough free caustic (plus some phosphate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in water, to give an alkaline reaction and the presence of carbonate, sulphate, phosphate and sodium was confirmed. The deposit, therefore, resulted from the evaporation of boiler water which had found its way past the tube expansions indicating that this operation had not resulted in a satisfactorily...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the pit surfaces is unaffected ( Ref 3 ). In this system pitting is a specific damage mechanism, but many other damage mechanisms also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. It is helpful to be as specific as possible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... affected by on-load corrosion showed them to be composed of approximately 50% iron oxide (magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 ), 20% metallic copper and 15% copper oxide, together with small amounts of water-soluble phosphates, sulphates, chlorides, and insoluble phosphates. Microscopical Examination The salient...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. There are levels of damage modes. For instance, the previous example can generally be described as a corrosion damage mode, but this is a general term that is not very helpful...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... for the formation of biofilm. The coupons were removed from the medium and then rinsed with sterile, distilled water to remove the unattached bacteria. The biofilm was fixed for 12 h at room temperature with 3% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.2) and then immersed in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the sustained stresses over long periods of aircraft rest. Other possible sources of hydrogen were the electric furnace steel making process, the acid pickling operation, or inadequate process during the iron phosphate treatment. The assigned main cause was inadequate maintenance; there was also a possible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was subsequently treated with phosphate. It would appear that concentration of sodium hydroxide occurred in the bellows unit and the stress corrosion cracking which develops was of the form known as caustic cracking. For many years the use of sodium sulphate — either added as such or formed in situ from sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Bureau of Standards , MD , 1976 , pp. 11 – 21 . 6. Ducheyne P. , Beight J. , Cuckler J. , Evans B. , and Radin S. : “ Effect of Calcium Phosphate Coating Characteristics on Ear ly Post-Operative Bone T issue Ingrowth ,” Biomaterials , 1990 , 11 , pp. 531 – 540...