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phosphate corrosion

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. There are levels of damage modes. For instance, the previous example can generally be described as a corrosion damage mode, but this is a general term that is not very helpful...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the pit surfaces is unaffected ( Ref 3 ). In this system pitting is a specific damage mechanism, but many other damage mechanisms also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. It is helpful to be as specific as possible...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... of the truck beam, as shown in Figure 10 . This observation implied that the pit had been present when the phosphate coating primer was applied, either at manufacture or overhaul. Fig. 8 A composite micrograph showing the profile of the corrosion pit. The arrow from the dotted line marks the depth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment chemical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001003
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... of this attack in the high-phosphate solution. This was a failure analysis, not a research and development project, so the corrosion rates were not measured, but subjectively there appeared to be a much thicker layer of oxide in the specimen of Fig. 5a than that of Fig. 5b . A test of the concept...
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 14 (SEM) micrograph of the manganese phosphate crystals at the bottom of the corrosion pit. 500× More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... is higher than in subcritical units. Because of this, the furnace tubes act more as superheaters than as water-walls. This necessitates the use of a higher grade of materials, such as the high-alloy steels, in the furnace. In turn, materials having higher creep strength and greater oxidation and corrosion...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 A composite micrograph showing the profile of the corrosion pit. The arrow from the dotted line marks the depth of the pit. The second arrow in the middle marks the manganese phosphate coating. More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4 . This also applies to corrosion in other acids such as sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active, the other ions such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate do not participate...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... failed during installation due to the presence of preexisting defects. Crack surfaces were found to be corroded and phosphate coated, indicating that the cracks occurred during manufacture. Installation, which presumably entailed some axial extension, resulted in ductile overload failure at the crack...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 9 Fourier transform infrared spectra of unknown white solids in a tank under investigation (bottom spectrum) was matched to ferric phosphate in the software spectral library (top spectrum). The table, populated by the software, indicates the hit quality index (HQI), the library used More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... affected by on-load corrosion showed them to be composed of approximately 50% iron oxide (magnetite, Fe 3 O 4 ), 20% metallic copper and 15% copper oxide, together with small amounts of water-soluble phosphates, sulphates, chlorides, and insoluble phosphates. Microscopical Examination The salient...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001406
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Abstract Caustic cracking is the term used to describe one of the forms in which stress-corrosion cracking manifests itself in carbon steels. In the present study, persistent leakage occurred after ten weeks of service from tube expansions in the steam and mud drum of a two-drum D type boiler...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... plates, and hollow spinal rods. Some of the failure mechanisms that were identified include corrosive attack, corrosion plus erosion-corrosion, inclusions and stress gaps, production impurities, design flaws, and manufacturing defects. Failure prevention and mitigation strategies are also discussed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001398
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... was subsequently treated with phosphate. It would appear that concentration of sodium hydroxide occurred in the bellows unit and the stress corrosion cracking which develops was of the form known as caustic cracking. For many years the use of sodium sulphate — either added as such or formed in situ from sodium...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... particulate air filters. The failure analysis investigation concluded that nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking was the cause of the failure. vent pipe nitrate-induced stress-corrosion cracking welding defects galvanized low-carbon steel MnS inclusions ion-coupled plasma-emission spectroscopy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Brittle intergranular fracture, typical of a hydrogen-induced delayed failure, caused the failure of an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni landing gear beam. Corrosion resulting from protective coating damage released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... enhanced when the hydrogen is present in combination with residual or applied tensile stresses. Many types of hydrogen damage are not due to corrosion processes at all. However, because hydrogen damage has many similarities regardless of the source of the hydrogen, damage processes caused by corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in the corrosion product of scale samples collected from mild steel heat exchanger tube. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), Tri calcium phosphate (Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 ), and Iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) were observed in the IA/PA mild steel heat exchanger scale ( Fig. 7a ). Calcium phosphate carbonate (Ca 10 (PO 4 )CO 3...