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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048147
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... during investigation. Etch pits were revealed by the cleaned surface which were never observed on properly phosphated coating. It was interpreted that the spring had been subjected to an abnormal acid attack in pickling or phosphating which had resulted in considerable absorption of hydrogen by the metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0090994
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... failed during installation due to the presence of preexisting defects. Crack surfaces were found to be corroded and phosphate coated, indicating that the cracks occurred during manufacture. Installation, which presumably entailed some axial extension, resulted in ductile overload failure at the crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... intergranular cracks were found emanating from the bottom of the pit and branched inward as shown in Figure 9 . The morphology and crack propagation pattern were characteristic of SCC. Detailed examination of the pit showed traces of manganese phosphate coating that was applied as primer on the inner surface...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 13 A back scattered image (BSE) of the pit in Figure 12 . The light grey area marked by the arrow in the centre represents manganese phosphate coating. 20× More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 8 A composite micrograph showing the profile of the corrosion pit. The arrow from the dotted line marks the depth of the pit. The second arrow in the middle marks the manganese phosphate coating. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001803
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... , Evans B. , and Radin S. : “ Effect of Calcium Phosphate Coating Characteristics on Ear ly Post-Operative Bone T issue Ingrowth ,” Biomaterials , 1990 , 11 , pp. 531 – 540 10.1016/0142-9612(90)90073-Y . 7. Ban S. and Maruno S. : “ Effect of Temperature on Electrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment; change in the alloy or heat treatment; change in design; use of galvanic protection; use of inhibitors; use of nonmetallic coatings and liners; application of metallic coatings; use of surface treatments, thermal spray, or other surface modifications; corrosion monitoring; and preventive...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... is the evolution of hydrogen gas according to Eq 4. This also applies to corrosion in other acids, such as sulfuric, phosphoric, and hydrofluoric, and water-soluble organic acids, such as formic and acetic. In each case, only the hydrogen ion is active; the other ions, such as sulfate, phosphate, and acetate, do...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., superalloys, and refractory metals to avoid the possibility of hydrogen charging associated with pickling. Plating solutions and plating conditions selected to produce a high-cathode efficiency minimize the amount of hydrogen generated on the metal surface. Because the metallic coatings plated on metal...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001746
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Abstract Brittle intergranular fracture, typical of a hydrogen-induced delayed failure, caused the failure of an AISI 4340 Cr-Mo-Ni landing gear beam. Corrosion resulting from protective coating damage released nascent hydrogen, which diffused into the steel under the influence of sustained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and plating conditions selected to produce a high-cathode efficiency minimize the amount of hydrogen generated on the metal surface. Because the metallic coatings plated on metal often prevent the hydrogen from leaving the base metal, elevated-temperature baking after plating is generally required to allow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... on Anionic Species Component Content, ppm Chloride 57 Nitrate 1050 Phosphate <370 Sulfate 150 Results of Ion-Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-ES) Analyses Table 3 Results of Ion-Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-ES) Analyses Component Weld Sample...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... as cold-rolling operations. As a matter of fact, the process schedule initially involved cold drawing of 12 mm rod to 10.10 mm diameter wire in a single-hole wire drawing machine. The patented wire rod was pickled and phosphate coated to facilitate lubrication during wire drawing. The 10.10 mm diameter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... developed for this purpose and after removal of the deposit with acid reagents, neutralising and washing, it is usual to boil-out using caustic and phosphate or, ammonia and hydrazine, in order to facilitate the formation of the desired uniform magnetite coating. When the boiler is emptied nitrogen could...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... uniform contact area that is scuffed the full length of the pattern. The entire pinion head is black due to a heavy coating of iron-manganese-phosphate. Physical Examination Magnetic-Particle Inspection Magnetic-particle inspection revealed no indication of cracking. Surface Hardness Testing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... W.S. , Murray R.G.E. : Diagenesis of metals chemically complexed to bacteria: laboratory formation of metal phosphates, sulfides, and organic condensates in artificial sediments . Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 45 , 1094 – 1108 ( 1983 ) 5. Ghiorse W.C. : Biology of iron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the pit surfaces is unaffected ( Ref 3 ). In this system pitting is a specific damage mechanism, but many other damage mechanisms also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. It is helpful to be as specific as possible...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006756
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... also result in a pitting damage mode in boiler tubing, including hydrogen damage, phosphate corrosion, and caustic gouging. There are levels of damage modes. For instance, the previous example can generally be described as a corrosion damage mode, but this is a general term that is not very helpful...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... individually before selection of materials for springs or of suitable protective coatings. Common Failure Mechanisms Fatigue is the most common mechanism of failure in springs, as demonstrated by the examples in this article. Any of the causes noted in the section “Common Causes of Failures...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... (Clariant Plastics and Coatings Ltd.) Low smoke density Nonhalogenated Higher thermal stability Polyurethane rigid foam Polyolefin system Hot-melt adhesive Phosphate ester Resorcinol diphosphate (RDP) Monophosphate bisphenol A diphosphate (BAPP) Not very hydrolytically stable Monophosphate may...