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phase-field models

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... experiment, a laboratory slurry pot test was converted to a portable model that could be transported to the field for use with slurries there ( Ref 33 , 34 ). This approach enabled the testing of a large number of candidate materials in a relatively short time, because this slurry pot design allowed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by numerical simulation, in which the three-dimensional flow field in a pipeline is solved using the Navier-Stokes equation together with a turbulence model. In this computation, the two-phase flow solver is preferable ( Ref 13 ), but the single-phase flow solver can provide a reasonable tool in consideration...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentrated by the pileup becomes equal to approximately 75% of the shear modulus. This requires between 100 and 1000 dislocations, a not unreasonable number in either bulk material or in second phases in a two-phase microstructure. Fig. 3 Dislocation models for cleavage fracture. (a) Elastic crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the slip plane. By using this model, it can be shown that a crack is nucleated when the shear stress concentrated by the pileup becomes equal to approximately 75% of the shear modulus. This requires between 100 and 1000 dislocations, a not unreasonable number in either bulk material or in second phases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a manner that is more easily understandable. Both of these aforementioned models can be represented two dimensionally, as a drawing, or three dimensionally, using construction materials. Common examples of illustrative models used by engineering students include phase diagrams, crystal lattices...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... The time-consuming portion is usually in the model generation phase that includes defining overall geometry, individual component geometry, materials properties, and boundary conditions. Because these analyses are performed on components that also must meet stringent codes and standards, extensive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... load of 10 g was used for the softer graphite phase. Quantitative image analysis (QIA) was carried out in a “Quantimet-600” (LEICA Imaging Systems Ltd., Cambridge, United Kingdom) model equipment to determine the volume fractions of different phases present in the failed roll samples. The volume...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... specific need. The programs simplify the complex code calculation analyses and allow for relatively quick solutions. The time-consuming portion is usually in the model-generation phase that includes defining overall geometry, individual component geometry, materials properties, and boundary conditions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract The U-0.8wt%Ti alloy is often used in weapon applications where high strength and fairly good ductility are necessary. Components are immersion quenched in water from the gamma phase to produce a martensitic structure that is amenable to aging. Undesirable conditions occur when...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... by scientists and engineers include free-body diagrams, phase diagrams, crystal lattices, and circuit diagrams. Illustrative models may or may not have any actual visual similarities to the object or process that they represent. Whereas a scale model of an automobile looks like the real system, a circuit...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003503
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... changes. Finally, during the production, use, and support phase, it serves as a guide for collecting field failure data and for developing maintenance and troubleshooting procedures. Fig. 5 Typical product development cycle and FMEA schedule ( Ref 11 ) As the design develops from concept...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... temperatures. The article describes the stages of the creep curve, discusses processes involved in the extrapolation of creep data, and summarizes notable creep constitutive models and continuum damage mechanics models. It demonstrates the effects of stress relaxation and redistribution on the remaining life...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006940
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... at the crack tip, characterizes the stress field associated with a sharp crack in an elastic continuum. Three geometric configurations are used to model the crack. Mode I refers to the crack opening with displacement normal to the fracture surface. Mode II refers to shear or antisymmetric crack-surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of percent retained austenite ( Ref 26 ) as well as other phases, pole figures ( Ref 7 , 15 ), and other analyses too numerous to mention. Residual Stress in Failures and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis The residual stresses present in a component can arise in almost every step of processing ( Ref 1...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to minimize or repair liquid-impact damage. Cavitation Erosion Hydrodynamic effects in flowing liquids or in liquids exposed to an acoustical field can reduce the pressure in particular locations to a critical value that is related to the vapor pressure of the liquid. In those locations, cavities can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or block loading (see Fig. 52 ) Striated surface caused by second phases in microstructure (see Fig. 51 ) Grooves or flutes SCC TGF Artifacts (mud cracks) Dried liquid on surface. May indicate incomplete cleaning of surface. If in the as-received condition, may indicate fluids from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006921
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... information on the common aging mechanisms of polymeric materials and the common accelerated testing methods used to obtain relevant data that are used with the prediction models that enable service life assessment. Beginning with a discussion of what constitutes a product failure, this article then reviews...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., are thermal-metallurgical phenomena related to alloy-specific phase transformations and local stress-strain behavior controlled by thermomechanical conditions. Process modeling and simulation are important tools to evaluate thermomechanical and metallurgical conditions ( Ref 34 ). Early AM modeling research...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006936
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the linear and phased array systems that are sometimes used for large-scale inspection tasks to reduce scan times, the various gating and image processing techniques, and how ultrasonic data are interpreted and presented. A brief section on future trends in ultrasonic inspection is presented at the end...