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phase-field microstructure modeling

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... appeared white under brightfield microscope illumination. Initially, thresholding was done by selecting a video level to capture both the carbide and retained austenite phases, and the overall volume fraction ( i.e. , carbide plus retained austenite) was determined for a particular microscopic field...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... concentrated by the pileup becomes equal to approximately 75% of the shear modulus. This requires between 100 and 1000 dislocations, a not unreasonable number in either bulk material or in second phases in a two-phase microstructure. Fig. 3 Dislocation models for cleavage fracture. (a) Elastic crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a two-phase microstructure. Fig. 3 Dislocation models for cleavage fracture. (a) Elastic crack regarded as a pileup of edge dislocations. (b) Pileup against a boundary forming a crack. (c) Crack forming by movement of dislocations on two slip planes. (d) Crack formation at tilt boundary. Source...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or block loading (see Fig. 52 ) Striated surface caused by second phases in microstructure (see Fig. 51 ) Grooves or flutes SCC TGF Artifacts (mud cracks) Dried liquid on surface. May indicate incomplete cleaning of surface. If in the as-received condition, may indicate fluids from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the presence of a second phase when they occur truly in the grain boundary. However, very small dimples can be seen on grain-boundary facets. Dimpled IG fracture can occur from void formation in the grain boundaries or from the mechanism of microvoid coalescence in the region adjacent to the grain boundary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
.... Quench-related failures whereby components that cracked either during or immediately after the heat treatment/quenching operation were sectioned for metallographic examination of the microstructure to examine the degree of phase transformation. Examination of premature tensile specimen failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001667
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of the titanium cylinder weldment was performed. Titanium is highly reactive with interstitial elements such as hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen. Each interstitial element affects the microstructural characteristics of titanium and titanium alloys. Oxygen is an alpha phase stabilizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006792
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... ROLLING-CONTACT FATIGUE (RCF) is a common failure mode in components subjected to rolling or rolling-sliding contact (e.g., rolling-element bearings, railway tracks, gears). It is characterized by crack propagation caused by the near-surface alternating shear stress field, caused by rolling or rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... techniques can also be used for the measurement of percent retained austenite ( Ref 26 ) as well as other phases, pole figures ( Ref 7 , 15 ), and other analyses too numerous to mention. Residual Stress in Failures and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis X-Ray Diffraction Theory and Residual-Stress Measurement...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... phases in a microstructure of steel grinding media as well as between sulfide minerals and these two phases ( Ref 31 ). In the study of high-carbon low-alloy steel grinding media, localized electrochemical cells existed between strained and unstrained regions of the alloy ( Ref 27 ). This resulted...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001535
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... was traversed over twenty random fields, and carbide volume fraction in each field was automatically estimated using proprietary application software. The amount of retained austenite present was, however, determined by x-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques because this phase was not optically discernible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the scope of this article, XRD techniques can also be used for the measurement of percent retained austenite ( Ref 19 ), and other phases, pole figures ( Ref 7 ), and other analyses too numerous to mention. Residual Stress in Failures and XRD Analysis The residual stresses present in a component can...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... overlays of anything except austenitic stainless steel in hydroturbines and pumps. This is partly attributable to the inadvisability of fusion cladding with specialty alloys in the field, where high-temperature postweld heat treatments for microstructural control and stress relief are usually not possible...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... In a random plane through bulk microstructure Voids 15.5 1.6 Inclusions 7.5 1.9 Source: Ref 14 , 30 Fig. 15 Systematic random sampling of fields of view Fig. 17 Scanning electron microscope fractograph of fracture surface of a wrought aluminum alloy. Observe...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... effects. Gamma-Prime Precipitation The principal strengthening mechanism in nickel-base blade alloys is the precipitation of gamma prime. The common microstructural feature in these alloys is the presence of coherent precipitates of gamma-prime phase in austenitic nickel-chromium matrix. The gamma...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001082
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the failure of the nickel-aluminum-bronze impellers showed the same type of characteristic crack initiation at the leading edge of the blades, and not in the fillet ( Fig. 2 ). A number of blade sections had undergone field welds to repair cracks or broken blades. Many of the repaired blade shapes did...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of coating delamination. A TS coating microstructure contains varying levels of micropores, microcracks, and secondary-phase particles, which act as stress concentration during cyclic loading. The extent of these microdefects varies for different coating techniques and also depends on the starting powder...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and significant improvements in impact abrasion resistance. In contrast, due to the hard phases, the composite material performs better than would be expected, given its bulk hardness; however, due to its low fracture toughness, it performs significantly worse in more severe wear modes. Fig. 31...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a duplex microstructure or that are made up of two or more component phases (e.g., a composite-type material, such as a high-chromium white iron, or a composite drill bit, such as diamond or tungsten carbide inserts in a steel matrix), the individual components of which vary in their mechanical properties...