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phase transitions

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c9001200
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... in a basic mass of pearlite with little ferrite. But the thin-walled part showed a structure of dendrites of precipitated primary solid solution grains with pearlitic-ferritic structure and a residual liquid phase with granular graphite in the ferritic matrix. The structure was formed by undercooling...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... diameter, diffusion coefficient Particle size in dilute dispersions, molecular aggregation Differential thermal analysis (DTA) Glass transition temperatures, T g ; melt/crystallization temperatures, T m Phase changes, T g and T m Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001161
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... from the austenitic region. This is usually not the case after welding. In this case the unstable iron carbide may segregate as a transition phase in a zone immediately adjacent to the seam, since this zone is heated to the highest temperature and cooled at the fastest rate. This unstable phase may...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... change of slope in a rupture life curve can occur from metallurgical instabilities, such as TG-IG fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, and nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... instabilities, such as transgranular-intergranular fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, or nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition, general oxidation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001691
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... are shown at the edge of the chamber. Water connection transition assemblies were fabricated with 3003 aluminum and are shown in Figure 2 . Fig. 1 The APS storage ring vacuum chamber. Three small round cooling holes are seen here. Fig. 2 Transition assemblies made from 3003 aluminum roll...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... nondestructive testing, metallography, and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the failure was attributed to transit fatigue, caused during highway transportation. Cracks along the toes of the weld from both the outside and inside surfaces, the transgranular nature of cracking, and the presence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... inclusion Microstructure of Drilling Bit The microstructure from a section in the transverse direction of the drilling bit is shown in Fig. 9 . The microstructures of the carburized layer, the transitive layer, and the matrix were all tempered martensite. Fig. 9 The microstructure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... measured to be 0.50 and 0.53 mm (0.020 and 0.021 in.). Discussion The delayed fracture of tempered glass due to nickel sulfide inclusions has been well documented. When nickel sulfide solidifies from the glass melt, it does so in a high-temperature, relatively dense phase. Below a transition range...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... monitored, and the data are reduced to the in-phase (elastic or storage) and out-of-phase (viscous or loss) components. The advantages of dynamic mechanical techniques for measuring the rheological properties of a solution or melt include fast test capability for thermally sensitive materials, ease...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006929
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... is proportional to thickness. Carter and Kibler ( Ref 8 ) adapted the Langmuir model to account for the anomalies which were observed in the long-term absorption phase. Researchers described the anomalies as molecules transitioning between bound and unbound states. Figure 3 is the derived expression applied...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... phase changes in the crystalline phase as well as various transitions in the amorphous regions. The latter are usually due to side group motion, but many also result from motion of some subunit of the chain itself. These transitions can have an influence on properties, but the influence is usually...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001307
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract The right front spring hanger on a dual rear axle of the tractor of a tractor-trailer combination failed, causing the vehicle to roll-over. The hanger was made from malleable cast iron that had been heat treated to produce a decarburized surface layer and a pearlitic transition layer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a significant level of amorphous segments undergo a phase change referred to as a glass transition. The glass transition represents the reversible change from/to a viscous or rubbery condition to/from a hard and relatively brittle one ( Ref 7 ). The glass transition is observed as a change in the heat capacity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001636
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., anodizing) and secondary cracks close Survey of the Results Thermomechanical Processing and Heat Treatment As stated earlier, the failed rotor hub (M323) was a monolithic Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy forging. The forging was produced from billet stock by conventional (α + β) phase field working...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of the failed pipe was found to consist of a matrix precipitate array (M23C6) and large s-phase particles in the grain boundaries. A portable grinding tool was used to prepare the surface and followed by swab etching. All material upstream of the boiler stop valve was revealed to have oriented the cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0090943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... micrograph. 119×. (d) Metallographic image showing the weak grain-boundary phase in the weld. Potassium dichromate etch. 297× Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the typical weld and base metal fracture features shown in Fig. 1(b) and (c) , respectively. The weld exhibited fine features...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... With immiscible blends, the polymers cannot mix on a molecular level and therefore separate into two phases that exhibit the transition temperatures of the component polymers. In partially miscible blends, intermolecular attractions between the component polymers produce two phases that are not as sharply...