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phase transformation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001685
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... failures whereby components that cracked either during or immediately after the heat treatment/quenching operation were sectioned for metallographic examination of the microstructure to examine the degree of phase transformation. Examination of premature tensile specimen failures by scanning electron...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article provides an overview of the effects of various material- and process-related parameters on residual stress, distortion control, cracking, and microstructure/property relationships as they relate to various types of failure. It discusses phase transformations that occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Microstructural changes were also observed, indicating that the steel was exposed to high temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture. References References 1. Larson T.E. , Skold R.V. : Laboratory studies relating mineral...
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 1 Microstructure of component that cracked during quenching. Phase transformation from γ to α′ martensite was incomplete and indicative of cooling rate <50°C. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048397
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Phase transformations Surgical implants Chromium steel Uniform corrosion The four-hole Lane plate shown in Fig. 1(a) was inserted 46 years ago and remained in the body for 26 years. A large portion of the plate disintegrated and consisted mainly of corrosion products. Figure 1(b) shows...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-gradient and phase-change stresses. Joining the studs to the flanges by welding should be discontinued. They should be attached by screw threads, using a key and keyway to prevent turning in service. Flanges Heat affected zone Phase transformations Studs 414 UNS S41400 Joining-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... a BLEVE. The first scenario is that the top portion of the tank, which is above the liquid level, becomes heated to above approximately 750 °C and transforms to austenite. The subsequent two-phase swell then fills the tank and cools the steel rapidly enough to transform the austenite to relatively...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0047694
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
..., the welded joints withstood the tensile and wrap tests. Austenite Phase transformations Post heating Tempering 1080 UNS G10800 Joining-related failures Extra high strength zinc-coated 1080 steel welded wire, 2.0 ± 0.08 mm (0.080 ± 0.003 in.) in diameter, was wound into seven-wire cable...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001126
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... transition temperature to accelerate the kinetics of phase transformation. Susceptible glass sheets break during heat treatment rather than in the field. The failures were caused by the presence of nickel sulfide inclusions in the tempered glass; these inclusions slowly expanded and created cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... or by a minute amount of phase transformation or both. Conclusion The fuel-line fracture was caused by fatigue induced by severe vibration in service. Corrective Measure Additional tube clamps were provided to damp the critical vibrational stresses. No further fuel-line fractures were encountered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0046044
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... but before tempering. Microscopic examinations of ethereal picral etched sections indicated that the cracks appeared before or during the final tempering phase of the heat treatment and that cracking had occurred while the steel was in the as-quenched condition, before its 315 deg C (600 deg F) snap temper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... and then within the grains. Excessive formation and coarsening of these carbides lead to matrix consumption and subsequent transformation to ferrite and graphite. Stresses generated by phase transformations promote decohesion of metal particles and graphite, and gross metal wastage (dusting) occurs. Once...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that are far more erosion resistant than the standard constructional materials described earlier are well known. The best of these, exemplified by cobalt-base alloys and NiTi alloys, are characterized by energy-absorbing deformation modes: fine twinning, stress- or strain-induced phase transformation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... The steel in the regions of the slots possessed little capacity for deformation, and fracturing of the martensitic layer, under cooling or impact stresses, would be likely to occur. The slots should have been cut mechanically. Impact Martensite Phase transformations Rails (railroad) Fe-0.55C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... (macroscopic and microscopic) Residual-tension stress distribution in surface layer Processing inclusions introduced Plastically deformed debris as a result of grinding Voids, pits, burrs, or foreign material inclusions in surface Physical Transformation of phases Grain size and distribution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... boundary area per unit volume decreases. This results in lesser number of potent sites available for nucleation of ferrite and pearlite. Thus, the transformation of austenite into softer phases (i.e. ferrite-pearlite) is slowed down with the increase in the tendency for martensitic transformations...
Image
Published: 01 December 1993
Fig. 8 An interesting detail on the group 1 resistors was the presence of an amorphous dark-appearing phase dotting the interface between the cermet metallization and the thick-film polymer conductive ink. Fourier transform infrared analysis determined that this dark-appearing phase More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0090030
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... Gas turbine engines Microcracking Phase transformations Rotors Titanium Fatigue fracture Brittle fracture In 1989, a United Airlines DC-10 in transit from Denver to Chicago experienced failure of the center engine. The titanium compressor disk burst and severed the hydraulics of the plane...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001609
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... is somewhat normal. A higher Ni content increases the amount of martensite transformation on rapid cooling or quenching. The martensitic phase contains less Cr than ferrite and therefore corrodes more rapidly. Fig. 4 Alloy 430 time-temperature-transformation diagram 16 Partially transformed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003540
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... alterations. Grain boundaries are thus the preferential region for congregation and segregation of impurities. Weakening or embrittlement can also occur by preferential phase precipitation or absorption of environmental species in the grain boundaries. In addition, the grain-boundary regions are also weakened...