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phase field methods

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001594
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... Utilities Electric Company (TU Electric) has implemented in response to these failures. High-cycle fatigue is invisible to proven commercial nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods during crack initiation and the initial phases of crack growth. Under a constant applied stress, cracks grow at accelerating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of microstructural measurements or to better reveal the relative presence of undesirable constituents or phases. If these characteristics are met, then the true structure is revealed and can be interpreted, measured, analyzed, and recorded. The preparation method should be as simple as possible, should yield...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... Sample is an Fe-Al-Cr alloy. Examination of fracture replicas with the light microscope ( Ref 5 , 6 , 7 ) can extend the use of the method only to a limited extent, because the replica collapses slightly, producing less depth of field. Also, with a replica, the risk of damaging the objective...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006768
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. X-ray diffraction residual-stress measurement methods are commonly applied to the successful completion of failure analyses and, in many cases, are the only viable ones for the acquisition of the required data. X-ray diffraction residual-stress analysis...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by Slurry Jet Method , Kagaku Ronbunshu , Vol 14 , 1988 , p 161 – 166 23. Blatt W. , Kohley T. , Lotz U. , and Heitz E. , The Influence of Hydrodynamics on Erosion-Corrosion in Two-Phase Liquid-Particle Flow , Corrosion , Vol 45 ( No. 10 ), 1989 , p 793 – 804 24...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in a field corrosion site. XRD, x-ray diffraction; EDX, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis; ATP, adenosine triphosphate; MPN, most probable number; MMM, molecular microbiological methods; APS, adenosine-5′-phosphosulfate. Adapted from Ref 14 Fig. 9 Friction factors for flow through test lines under...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for a number of reasons, the most prominent being the ability of the SEM to image large, non-flat samples from low to high magnifications (approximately 10× to greater than 100,000×). The ability to obtain in-focus images of rough samples over a large change in vertical height is termed depth of field...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... magnifications (approximately 10× to greater than 100,000×). The ability to obtain in-focus images of rough samples over a large change in vertical height is termed depth of field, and it is this trait that gives SEM images their characteristic three-dimensional appearance. The large depth of field is made...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... be taken in the field. A common tool for PMI of alloys in the field is a portable XRF analyzer. This handheld device can provide information in minutes and use databases to match the spectra to an alloy ( Fig. 1 ). This method is nondestructive to the part, but usually requires safety precautions because...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003528
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-corrosion cracking X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement X-RAY DIFFRACTION (XRD) residual stress analysis is an essential tool for failure analysis. X-ray diffraction residual stress measurement methods are commonly applied to the successful completion of failure analyses and, in many cases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001339
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... image of the deposit on the inside surface of the pipe EDS analysis was performed to identify the light-colored phase shown in Fig. 15 . This material was found in the pipe cross section next to the field excavated weld. The EDS spectrum of these light areas confirmed the presence of chromium...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... techniques that are based on fracture profilometry. This is followed by a section describing the methods based on scanning electron microscope fractography. The article also addresses procedures for three-dimensional fracture surface reconstruction. In each case, sufficient methodological details, governing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... sulfides overlying severe pitting Table 2 does not include corrosion scenarios due to APB. This possibility can be assessed using the methods described in the MIC field guides described previously or by analysis of deposits for organic acids. A cryptic guide to the identification of corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and on ways to minimize or repair liquid-impact damage. Cavitation Erosion Hydrodynamic effects in flowing liquids or in liquids exposed to an acoustical field can reduce the pressure in particular locations to a critical value that is related to the vapor pressure of the liquid. In those locations...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003520
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for failure analysis. With the Debye-Scherrer camera, one can identify corrosion products and phases in refractories and minerals. The diffractometer can be applied to either qualitative or quantitative chemical analysis by indexing with the Hanawalt method or by using fluorescence analysis. Orientation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... thinning rate ( Ref 48 ). In the flow-evaluation step, the flow field through the pipeline must be evaluated by numerical simulation, in which the three-dimensional flow field in a pipeline is solved using the Navier-Stokes equation together with a turbulence model. In this computation, the two-phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001717
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... temperatures during thermal treatment. These large grains offered less resistance to fatigue and SCC. In addition, evidence of titanium-carbo-nitrides was detected at the grain boundaries of this material that was prohibited according to the governing specification. This phase is formed at higher thermal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., their distribution, and possible pullouts can only be assessed in this state. Evaluation of inclusions, contamination, and cracks should also be made before etching. To reveal grain boundaries, phases, and other microstructural details, the ceramic specimens must be etched. The methods of etching used...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... method of illumination. Figure 9 shows a view of the fracture surface of a tensile test specimen from a cast steel that has suffered embrittlement, resulting in a “rock candy” fracture. Fig. 9 Low-power light microscope view of a “rock candy” fracture in a tensile specimen taken from a cast...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001666
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
.... This investigation provided an opportunity to develop various field metallographic techniques that could be used for future disc inspections and, because this disc was not to be returned to service, to validate these techniques by normal destructive methods. The rotor in question was a tandem, double flow, low...