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phase decomposition

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... of the rotor. Actual operating temperatures exceeded those intended for this application. The presence of transformation products in the brake-rotor edge indicated that the lower critical temperature had been exceeded during operation. Critical temperature Pearlite Phase decomposition 60-40-18 UNS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the corrosion damage was typical of alkaline corrosion and confirmed that the boiler tubes failed as a result of steam blanketing that concentrated phosphate salts. The severe alkaline conditions developed most probably because of the decomposition of trisodium phosphate, which was used as a water treatment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001711
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and 540 °C. In these conditions, the decomposition of cementite yields graphite, which reduces tensile strength. This effect is a faster strength reduction due to the globulization of carbides. Therefore, steels must include alloying elements with strong carbide-forming properties in order to prevent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003501
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... functions. The term “decomposition” is generally used to describe the part of the design process that identifies the subassemblies comprising a product or larger assembly. That is, in the conceptual design of an automobile, it could be decomposed into the engine, drivetrain, frame, and so forth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... between rollers and rings for providing lubrication are also key factors in ensuring the safe operation of bearings [ 5 , 6 ]. Prashad [ 7 ] testified that the failure of some cylindrical roller bearings in alternators was just relevant to the chemical decomposition of the grease. Thus, thorough...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001686
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... near the coil inner diameter was a result of high temperatures and the decomposition of the Dowtherm fluid. Because only the coil I.D. crown position had the scale, a circumferential temperature gradient around the pipe was inferred. This means that the fire side of the coil (inner diameter) reached...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of SAE-192 carbon steel contains ferrite and pearlite phases. However, the microstructure of tube 2 in the fracture area (as well as at some distance from the rupture), consisted of ferrite with grain boundary cementite or spheroidal carbides (Fe 3 C) and no pearlite phases. Occurrence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of polymers, determining decomposition products can lead to verification of the original material. In analysis of crystalline materials, especially ceramics or minerals, x-ray diffraction (XRD) can provide compositional information on crystalline phases and quantify those phases. Powder XRD is beneficial...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...–chromium–molybdenum steels in which the carbides formed have a composition M x C y . Over-aging promotes the coalescence of the small carbides formed from the pearlite decomposition and prolonged aging leads to a structure of ferrite with an almost uniform distribution of spheroidized carbides...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the decomposition of ferrite and also increases the volume fraction of austenite. This σ phase reaction is favored by aging at higher temperatures (650–900 °C) and longer periods (30 min to 8 h), and the kinetics of the reaction to form σ phase are slower than for Cr 2 N precipitation [ 3 , 5 ]. Austenitic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... as part of a DMA evaluation are plotted to illustrate the elastic or storage modulus ( E ′) and the viscous or loss modulus ( E ″) on the y -axes and as a function of temperature on the x -axis. Less frequently, time is used, depending on the type of experiment. Additionally, the tangent of the phase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in a rupture-life curve can occur from metallurgical instabilities, such as transgranular-intergranular fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, or nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... blowers—is an important phase of on-site examination. It is usually helpful for the individual making the on-site examination to have an assortment of plastic bags or paper envelopes in which samples can be placed. Identification of each sample, with its location and orientation marked on photographs...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... strategies that minimize corrosion failures of both classes of materials. References References 1. “Standard Terminology Relating to Refractories,” ASTM C 71, Annual Book of ASTM Standards , ASTM 2. Muan A. and Osborn E.F. , Phase Equilibria Among Oxides in Steelmaking...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... is to consider bacterial problems at the start of the construction design phase. If a process condition is to be changed, its potential impact on bacteria growth should be considered. Once MIC has developed in a system, the difficulty in mitigating MIC increases. A simple material change by itself, usually...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... instabilities, such as TG-IG fracture transition, recrystallization, aging or overaging (phase precipitation or decomposition of carbides, borides, and nitrides), intermetallic-phase precipitation, delayed transformation to equilibrium phases, order-disorder transition, general oxidation, IG corrosion, stress...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003570
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Simulated Liquid-Droplet Erosion , Microstruct. Sci. , Vol 25 , 1998 , p 183 – 190 15. Woodford D.A. , Cavitation-Erosion-Induced Phase Transformation in Alloys , Metall. Trans. , Vol 3 , 1972 , p 1137 – 1145 16. Richman R.H. , McNaughton W.P. , and Rao A.S...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., accelerate phase transformations ( Ref 7 ). This occurs whether the stresses are tensile or compressive and results in accelerated austenite decomposition and increased M s temperature. The strain of this process is often estimated as being equal to the volumetric expansion divided by 3 ( Ref 8...