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phase constituents

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001719
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...Abstract Abstract Metallography is an important component of failure analysis. In the case of a liquid metal embrittlement (LME) failure it is usually conclusive if a third phase constituent can be formed inside of the cracks after failure. In the case where it is necessary to characterize...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046956
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... and was found to have an abnormally high copper content. Metallographic examination of a cross-sectional specimen, also from the failed area, revealed the presence of a microconstituent foreign to the alloy; this constituent, probably a nickel-copper intermetallic phase, was observed in the grain boundaries...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001843
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... bismuth-free). To assess if tin pest had occurred x-ray diffraction (XRD) was used. Since tin pest is the transformation of tin from a body centered tetragonal structure (beta tin) to a cubic structure (alpha tin), use of XRD on the affected areas provided conclusive evidence of the phase constituents...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... place, resulting in a porous structure. The copper constituents then appeared to have been deposited on the surfaces ( Fig. 5 ). This deposited copper-rich layer was the reddish copper layer observed macroscopically ( Figs. 6 , 7 ). An EDS elemental dot map revealed that the interdendritic phase...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.conag.c0047352
EISBN: 978-1-62708-221-1
... of several localized stresses. These cracks tend to fracture the brittle carbide phase first; once nucleated, the sharp cracks can propagate and grow to critical dimensions, which eventually induces complete failure to the load-bearing section. Small amounts of ferrite (the dark-etching constituent shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... nital-etched specimens were used for estimating the contents of other microstructural constituents such as martensite, retained austenite, and carbide. In estimating the volume fractions of carbide and retained austenite, thresholding and image editing were performed selectively since both these phases...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is the juxtaposition of two constituents of different properties, such as different thermal expansion coefficients (e.g., alumina-mullite, mullite-silica, and magnesia-chromite). In fact, in most refractories, phase boundary microcracking can be expected. Melting Behavior and the Use of Phase Diagrams For many...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of fractured steel surface may have served as void-nucleating sites. Elemental mapping showed Al and S that are inclusion constituents have potentially played a role in fracture of the wrench socket. Optical microscopy of the failed socket indicated feathery bainite microstructure that is expected...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001411
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... the boundary between the attacked and unattacked zones is seen in Fig. 4 . The dark etching constituent on the left-hand side of the field is the beta phase and it will be seen that, in the region that had suffered attack, this has been region that had been replaced by re-deposited copper, resulting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001646
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... rope is dependent on the strengths of the individual constituent wires and their arrangement inside the rope. The construction of a wire rope also has an important bearing on its application; the geometric arrangement of wires in the rope influences the internal fretting of wires, rope stiffness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048299
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract Pendant-style reheater, constructed of ASME SA-213, grade T-11, steel ruptured. A set of four tubes, specified to be 64 mm OD x 3.4 mm minimum wall thickness was examined. A small quantity of loose debris was removed from the inside of one of the tubes. The major constituent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001391
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... composing the termination was separate and distinct. There was no evidence of intermetallic formation between the cermet and thick-film ink. The presence of the dark-appearing amorphous phase at this interface was confirmed ( Fig. 8 ). Samples from group 2, those that had been processed through...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001706
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
...× Metallographic sections were prepared through the pit and fracture surface to characterise the microstructure of the truck beam material. No deleterious phases or anomalies were detected in fine-grained martensitic microstructure of the 4340 steel. Figure 8 shows a composite micrograph of a transverse section...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Murakami's reagent [15 g K 3 Fe (CN) 6 , 2 g NaOH, 100 mL H 2 O], σ phase was found to occur uniformly throughout the core material, appearing as a gray constituent that in general followed the grain boundaries (micrograph, Fig. 1 ). This phase generally causes embrittlement; however, its effect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., or photographed. An etchant should be used that reveals all of the structure at first. Later, it may be useful to use a selective etchant that reveals only the phase or constituent of interest or at least produces strong contrast or color differences between two or more phases present, to improve the precision...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0090971
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... of brittle overload fracture due to excessive iron-zinc phase and gross porosity. These conditions acted synergistically to reduce the strength of the material. The composition was nonstandard, and the inherent brittleness suggested that it was unlikely that this material was an intentional proprietary alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001616
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) to identify the phases present, crack path and diffusion of corrosive species, and any other precipitates. The slightly adherent scale and minute cracks inside the deep local pits indicated that the corrosion was in the intermediate stage, that is, a stage before final burst ( Fig. 7 ). The typical features...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001444
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
.... The steel in the regions of the slots possessed little capacity for deformation, and fracturing of the martensitic layer, under cooling or impact stresses, would be likely to occur. The slots should have been cut mechanically. Impact Martensite Phase transformations Rails (railroad) Fe-0.55C...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., it is common for titanium brazed joints to have a composite structure consisting of intermetallics, solid solutions, and eutectic constituents. Phase compositions and the volume of different phases depend on brazing temperature, holding time, cooling rate, width of the joint, and the composition of brazing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006759
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the suspect or failed part under investigation, the investigator must determine which standards and specifications are required for the design. As part of obtaining background data during the early phases of the investigation, it is critical to determine what materials were selected by the designers...