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phase change

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0047579
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...-gradient and phase-change stresses. Joining the studs to the flanges by welding should be discontinued. They should be attached by screw threads, using a key and keyway to prevent turning in service. Flanges Heat affected zone Phase transformations Studs 414 UNS S41400 Joining-related failures...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0048808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... metal, the high carbon level allowed martensite to form. In the area where the grain-boundary precipitates appeared heaviest, between the martensite band and the duplex structure, the structure was probably austenitic. These phase changes are predicted from the Schaeffler diagram (in the article...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003546
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... There are two possible types of loading: in-phase and out-of-phase cycling. For in-phase cycling, the direction of imposed mechanical strain and temperature change in the same direction (e.g., the temperature increases with increasing mechanical strain). In out-of-phase cycling, one variable decreases...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... Microstructural changes were also observed, indicating that the steel was exposed to high temperatures. The combined effect of pitting, incrustations, and phase transformations caused the pipe to rupture. References References 1. Larson T.E. , Skold R.V. : Laboratory studies relating mineral...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001424
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... Abstract Two examples concerning fabricated mild steel rotor spiders which failed due to lack of torsional rigidity, probably supplemented by the presence of high internal stress, are described. The machine concerned in the first case was a 3,000 hp three-phase slip-ring motor. In the second...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.homegoods.c0049838
EISBN: 978-1-62708-222-8
... Abstract An electron probe microanalyzer was applied to the study of service failures (due to severe heating) of aluminum wire connections in residential electrical circuits. Perturbed regions in which the composition underwent a change during the failure were revealed by optical and scanning...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., T m Phase changes, T g and T m Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Heat of polymerization, fusion, T g , T m Phase changes, reaction kinetics degree of cross linking, degradation inhibitor content and effectiveness Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Composition, weight loss...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003545
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...; hence, prolonged exposure under creep conditions can result in microstructural changes, such as the precipitation of new phases, dissolution or growth of desired phases, grain growth, and so on. Many of the structural changes can be duplicated through simple heat treatment. However, some microstructural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006780
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microstructure prior to exposure. Of course, most materials are not thermodynamically stable; thus, prolonged exposure under creep conditions can result in microstructural changes, such as the precipitation of new phases, dissolution or growth of desired phases, grain growth, and so on. Many of the structural...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... • Little distortion evident • Intergranular or transgranular • May relate to notches at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion • Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
..., such as temper embrittlement, sigma-phase embrittlement, and 475 °C embrittlement Successful heat treatment relies on the proper combination of time and temperature to achieve uniformity of temperature throughout the part and to complete the metallurgical changes necessary. For example, when cold-worked...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... at surface or brittle phases internally • Progressive zone: usually transgranular with little apparent distortion• Overload zone: may be either ductile or brittle • Microstructural change typical of overheating• Multiple intergranular cracks• Voids formed on grain boundaries or wedge shaped cracks at grain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... and failure of β and η phases (arrows) after compression for a deformation degree of 35 and 60%, respectively. (c) After forging The main α phase after the compression is subfine-grained equiaxial and does not undergo considerable changes. The annealing at 200°C after the compression did not result...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ( C sat − C ∞ ) The phase-boundary reaction rate is then fixed by the movement of ions across the interface and, hence, is governed by molecular diffusion. The effective diffusion length over which mass is transported is proportional to ( Dt ) 1/2 and, therefore, the change...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c9001578
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
..., the vibrations were slightly higher on the test run than on previous runs. This change in the level of vibration followed a pattern that showed that the vibration in the 2× cell would vary from 0.9 to 1.6 in./s from one test run to another. In an attempt to determine the phasing of the vibration, a once per...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001521
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... transgranular and intergranular cracks are present. It appears that in all cases, the cracks are initially intergranular. In several cases, the mode of fracture appears to have changed to transgranular as the crack propagated, and is blunted at the tip (see Fig. 5 ). Fig. 5 Light photomicrographs...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Fig. 3 XRD scan showing the peak of retained austenite Fig. 4 Surface of the tube showing fine grain size Fig. 5 Molybdenum-rich inclusions observed in the material Fig. 6 Changes in impedance measured at the circumference of the tube with schematic of the tube showing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001329
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... material Fig. 3 Staining (probable leakage area) on fitting of valve assembly Fig. 4 Microstructure of pipe material, composed of α phase. 332× Fig. 5 Dendritic microstructure of weld metal. 332× Fig. 6 Microstructure (α + β) of cast material, showing iron rosettes...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001829
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and fine grains Fig. 4 XRD patterns of bond coat before and after spallation Fig. 5 Composition changes by EDS across bond/substrate interface (a) 721ES, (b) welded, and (c) normal region of inner root area, (d) Aluminum line profile of (a) to (c) Fig. 1 (a) First-stage vane...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., depending on the circumstances: Degradation assessment is based on a combination of appearance changes (ten parameters, including color and gloss retention), dimensional stability (swelling, weight change, and Barcol hardness), and flexural strength/modulus properties. For each property, a scoring...