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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001813
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of pressure vessels and pipes. Despite the fact that the graphitization reaction has been studied for several decades, the exact cause of the formation of planar arrays of graphite nodules remains unknown. References References 1. Wilson J.G. : Graphitization of steel in petroleum refining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-induced cracking of metals , Banff, Alta , 19–23 September, 2004 , (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2008), pp. 401 – 410 10.1016/B978-008044635-6.50076-5 2. Gutzeit J. , Merrick R.D. , Scharfstein L.R. , Corrosion in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations . Metals Handbook , vol...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0065825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... Abstract A case of continual product refinement stimulated by product failures was described. Brittle fracture of gas transmission line pipe steels occurred demonstrating a poor combination of materials, environment, manufacturing and installation problems, and loads. Initial efforts were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c0048835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... not have been predicted by the June 1977 revision of the Nelson Curve for that material. As a result of this experience, a major refiner instituted regular ultrasonic inspections of all welds in its Fe-C-0.5Mo steel desulfurizers. Investigation During a routine examination of a naphtha desulfurizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-Miller parameter (LMP), in particular, is arguably the most widely used time-temperature parameter for the design of high-temperature components. The American Petroleum Institute’s API Standard 530: Calculation of Heater-Tube Thickness in Petroleum Refineries , for example, uses the LMP for the design...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article illustrates the use of the American Petroleum Institute (API) 579-1/ASME FFS-1 fitness-for-service (FFS) code (2020) to assess the serviceability and remaining life of a corroded flare knockout drum from an oil refinery, two fractionator columns affected by corrosion under...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in many metals and is readily available during the production, processing, and service of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in the industries that rely on pressure vessels, storage tanks, heat exchangers, piping, compressors, and pumps to produce or refine oil and gas, chemicals, fertilizer, and polymers. One notable fatigue-related failure in Japan of a breech-lock-closure heat exchanger (sometimes referred to as a screw plug heat...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of metals from operations such as: Refining (precipitates upon solidification from supersaturated concentrations) Acid cleaning (pickling) Electroplating Contact with water or other hydrogen-containing liquids or gases Depending on the type of hydrogen-metal interaction, hydrogen damage...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... FLAMMABLE AND EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS are used in various chemical, refining, and process facilities. For example, failure due to a leak, internal explosion, overpressurization, or detonation of a storage tank, pressure vessel, or piping containing combustible products can result in blast damage as well as fire...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006809
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Acknowledgment This article was revised from H.S. Reemsnyder, Failure Assessment Diagrams , Failure Analysis and Prevention , Volume 11, of the ASM Handbook , ASM International, 2002, p 243–249. References References 1. “ Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry ,” API...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Construction steel design code using load and resistance factor design (LRFD) was developed by Galambos and Ravindra ( Ref 14 ). The American Petroleum Institute (API) has adopted an LRFD format for design of offshore structures ( Ref 15 , 16 ). Over the past decade, there has been considerable interest...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) mechanical integrity requirements and American Petroleum Institute (API) inspection requirements. A knowledge base of equipment failures is also a useful input into a plant mechanical integrity program, with the aim of continual reliability improvement. Objectives of a Failure Analysis The objectives...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003526
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... analysis. General Development of FEA Before the development of FEA, engineering structural analysis and design was carried out using classical techniques developed and refined since the mid-nineteenth century. Any analysis of a structure to determine the response to loads requires that the basic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006773
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and design was carried out using classical techniques developed and refined since the mid-nineteenth century. Any analysis of a structure to determine the response to loads requires that the basic physical relationships of equilibrium/strain compatibility and material constitutive behavior/boundary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... developed as shown in Fig. 4 . The mesh refinement is oriented such that the fine mesh along sides AB and DC will move up along the extruded walls as the billet is moved forward. Solution Procedure, Boundary Conditions, and Contact Treatment The process is assumed as quasi-static and solved using...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... for major oil refiners is failures or near-failures that can be attributed to insufficient alloy content in steels for hydrogen service. In one example, a carbon steel pipe section failed that was inadvertently substituted for the specified 1.25Cr-0.5Mo steel. This 305-mm (12-in.) diam line ruptured after...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... improvement in air-melted bearing steels has occurred in recent years. Bearing steels are currently made by electric-furnace melting, ladle refining, and casting by either bottom or top pouring of ingots or continuous casting. The air-melted steel quality is approaching that of electroslag remelting (ESR...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.9781627082952
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2