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petrochemical operations

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...-induced cracking of metals , Banff, Alta , 19–23 September, 2004 , (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2008), pp. 401 – 410 10.1016/B978-008044635-6.50076-5 2. Gutzeit J. , Merrick R.D. , Scharfstein L.R. , Corrosion in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations . Metals Handbook , vol...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001736
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... Abstract Leakage was detected at the welds between stiffening plates and the pipe in a transfer line carrying butane and related petrochemical compounds. The line and reinforcing rings were of AISI 316 stainless steel, the pipe being of 508 mm diam and 6.25 mm wall thickness. The design...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001675
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... high local stress. The study indicates that standard metallographic procedures can be used to identify failure modes in high temperature petrochemical plants. Creep (materials) Petrochemical plants Reformer tubes Incoloy 800H UNS N08810 Thermal fatigue fracture Tubing operating at high...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A bent Ni-Cu Monel 400 alloy tube, which operated as part of a pipeline in a petrochemical distillery, failed by through-thickness cracking. The pipeline was used to carry a stream of gaseous hydrocarbons containing hydrochloric acid (HCl) into a reaction tower. The tower provided...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001367
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract Cracking was discovered in an in-service, second-stage turbine impeller during a downtime inspection. The fabricated 4300 series low-alloy steel impeller was used in a compressor in an industrial petrochemical plant. It was also reported that a process upset had allowed a 10% NaOH...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001280
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Abstract An HK-40 alloy tubing weld in a reformer furnace of a petrochemical plant failed by leaking after a shorter time than that predicted by design specifications. Leaking occurred because of cracks that passed through the thickness of the weldment. Analysis of the cracked tubing indicated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... in petrochemical plants to produce hydrogen via a high-temperature reaction between steam and hydrocarbon gases in the presence of a catalyst. The reaction occurs inside heat-resistant, spun-cast tubes. These are high-chromium and nickel alloy tubes that are welded to the headers and pigtails that connect...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006807
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Abstract This article provides some new developments in elevated-temperature and life assessments. It is aimed at providing an overview of the damage mechanisms of concern, with a focus on creep, and the methodologies for design and in-service assessment of components operating at elevated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... that special care is taken in the selection of materials for the flow channels for the reformed gas. There is a risk of metal dusting corrosion. Therefore, Alloy 601 was selected for certain components of the HTCR. After one year of operation, one HTCR exhibited a certain kind of cracks in the Alloy 601...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... used in the fabrication of components operating in the petrochemical industry for some reasons, mainly due to their excellent resistance to corrosion coupled with good mechanical properties. Nevertheless, some factors can lead to the failure of components, even if fabricated with an adequate material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... fatigue striations manifested by SEM, that the vessel was subject to significant fatigue cracking, which was probably corrosion assisted. From COD measurements at the operating temperature of -130 deg C (-202 deg F), and a finite stress analysis, a fracture mechanics evaluation using BS PD6493 yielded...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ductility HP grade Cr-Ni steel (austenitic heat resistant steel) Introduction The ethylene cracking tube is an important section in a petrochemical plant; these tubes are exposed to high temperature (approximately 1100 °C). Normal service life of these coiled tubes is approximately 100,000 h...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001059
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... steel column in diglycol amine vacuum service had visible OD pitting in several areas above the insulation support rings. Circumstances Leading to Failure Although the column was used in diglycol amine vacuum service, previous service included pressurized operation. The pitted areas were...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... is the biggest contributor, as it imposes cyclic, moment stresses which are highest at the subject connection. Welding and high-temperature operation result in: increased creep and intergranular oxidation rates; precipitation of brittle chromium and titanium crabides at grain boundaries; introduction of high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006823
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... insulation in an organic sulfur environment, and an equalization tank with localized corrosion in the shell courses in a chemicals facility. In the first two cases, remaining life is assessed by determining the minimum thickness required to operate the corroded equipment. The first is based on a Level 2 FFS...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Introduction One of the most important pieces of equipment in industrial units is pumps, which plays a key role in operation cycle of electric power generation, so any minor problem of a pump has a direct impact on the system. The common problems facing pumps are cavitation, erosion, and corrosion...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-value heavier hydrocarbons, called natural gas liquids (NGL), from the methane. Mercury at the parts per billion (ppb) level was produced with the natural gas and normally was removed by adsorption beds upstream of the cryogenic plant. After some years of operation, a leak was detected in the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... properties. Grain boundary sliding and dislocation motion were enhanced, causing a local increase in the steady state strain rate and the premature failure of the tube. Grain boundary sliding Plastic deformation Spalling Voids HK UNS J94224 Creep fracture/stress rupture The petrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant, a service business, or a government agency), but companies committed to Six Sigma have reported significant gains in productivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... by operators in the petrochemical and other industries. Fig. 1 Life-cycle management for pressurized fixed equipment This section refers to API STD 579-1/ASME FFS-1, which covers assessments of pressure-containing fixed equipment installed in process units, including pressure vessels, piping...