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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... conference on environment-induced cracking of metals , Banff, Alta , 19–23 September, 2004 , (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2008), pp. 401 – 410 10.1016/B978-008044635-6.50076-5 2. Gutzeit J. , Merrick R.D. , Scharfstein L.R. , Corrosion in petroleum refining and petrochemical operations...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001101
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract Several cadmium-plated carbon steel socket head cap screws that were part of a slide valve assembly on a regenerator line in a petrochemical plant failed during initial loading. Metallographic and XDS chemical analysis in conjunction with SEM examination of one failed and one...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001819
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... • Washlo S.D. and Aggen G. , Wrought Stainless Steels , Properties and Selection: Irons, Steels, and High-Performance Alloys , Vol 1 , ASM Handbook , ASM International , 1990 , p 841 – 907 . 10.31399/asm.hb.v01.a0001046 The petrochemical industry is one of the most dynamic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
.... Applications Circumstances Leading to Failure Pertinent Specifications Performance of Other Parts in Same or Similar Service Specimen Selection Visual and low-magnification optical examination of the samples revealed evidence of perforation only in the curved parts. No major distortion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... References 1. Thielsch Helmut and Cone Florence M. , “Failures, Integrity and Repairs of Petrochemical Plant Reformers”. 2. Marketing Brochure , Fired Heater Technology Corporation , Liberty Corner, NJ. 3. “Incoloy Alloys 800 and 800HT,” Inco Alloy International, Inc. , 1986...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001590
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract This case study demonstrates that Alloy 601 (UNS N06601) is susceptible to strain-age cracking. The observation illustrates the potential importance of post weld heat treatment to the successful utilization of this alloy in certain applications. Steam reforming Inconel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001137
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... plate) was measured as a function of temperature from −196°C on the lower shelf to 95°C on the upper shelf. The steel was a low strength, low carbon steel, (trade named IZETT) developed by KRUPP in Germany during the second world war, ostensibly for cryogenic application for liquid oxygen propellants...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001687
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... The petrochemical industries make extensive use of centrifugally cast tubular HK austenitic alloys in conditions where a material of high resistance at elevated temperatures and corrosive environments is required. In the as-cast condition, its microstructure consists of columnar grains of austenite elongated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... were the dominant failure mechanisms and that the materials and processes used to make the pumps were largely unsuited for the application. pump casing cavitation wear erosion steel shrinkage pits and voids scanning electron microscopy cavitation resistance C30 (low-carbon steel alloy...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... and Reliability Improvement: Nuclear Fossil and Petrochemical Plants , American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 1994 , p 329 6. McIntyre D.R. , English J.J. , and Kobrin G. , “Mercury Attack of Ethylene Plant Alloys,” Paper 106, presented at Corrosion/89, National Association...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003514
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...Abstract Abstract This article describes the historical background, uncertainties in structural parameters, classifications, and application areas of probabilistic analysis. It provides a discussion on the basic definition of random variables, some common distribution functions used...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A storage tank had been in service at a petrochemical plant for 13 years when inspectors discovered cracks adjacent to weld joints and in the base plate near the foundation. The tank was made from AISI 304 stainless steel and held styrene monomer, a derivative of benzene...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by erosion ( Ref 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ). In the petrochemical industry, process control valves ( Ref 37 ) and power recovery turbines ( Ref 18 , 38 ) are damaged by erosion. In chemical process industries, solids transport systems are damaged by erosion ( Ref 25 , 39 , 40 , 41 ). In the aircraft industry...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003500
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant, a service business, or a government agency), but companies committed to Six Sigma have reported significant gains in productivity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Hydrogen on Behavior of Materials , American Institute of Mining , Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers , 1976 , p 467 – 479 11. “ Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Practice ,” API 941, American Petroleum Institute...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006753
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...” is a statistical metric referring to six times the statistical standard deviation of a normal distribution, which allows no more than 3.4 defects per million opportunities (equivalent to 99.9997% reliability). This is indeed a lofty goal for any organization (be it a manufacturing company, a petrochemical plant...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... 14. Grabke H.J. , Brancho-Troconis C.B. , and Múller-Lorenz E.M. , Metal Dusting of Low Alloy Steels , Mater. Corros. , Vol 45 , 1995 , p 215 10.5006/1.3293634 15. Schillmoller C.M. , Solving High-Temperature Problems in Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., Metallurgical, and Petroleum Engineers , 1976 , p 467 – 479 9. “Steel for Hydrogen Service at Elevated Temperatures and Pressures in Petroleum Refineries and Petrochemical Practice,” API 941, American Petroleum Institute , July 1970 10. Failure Analysis and Prevention , Vol 10 , Metals...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003522
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... be made in this way. The detection limits of elements are typically on the order of 0.1 wt%. Figure 21 shows the analysis made of deposits within a crack in a pipe in a petrochemical plant. Fig. 21 Energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis of deposit in a crack in a pipe from a petrochemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a petrochemical plant Fig. 25 Plot of hardness across the carburized layer of a gear tooth made by using a microindentation hardness tester with a Vickers indenter. The equivalent Rockwell C hardness is shown on the right. The effective depth of hardness is indicated by the broken line cutting...