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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001496
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
...; therefore, it most likely was permanent misalignment within the assembly. Alignment Gears Trains 4320H UNS H43200 Fatigue fracture A spiral gear and pinion set were submitted for analysis. The pinion was intact, but the gear had broken into two sections that resulted when two fractured areas...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001569
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and/or changes in maintenance. Nondestructive inspections by visual, magnetic particle, ultrasonic, and radiographic methods for detecting and monitoring damage are discussed. These failures are presented to provide hindsight that will help others in increasing the success rate for anticipating and analyzing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001639
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
..., and monitors) Wall Crawler The wall crawler is a commercially available P-scan AMS-1T crawler ( Fig. 3 ). The crawler is attached to the steel tank wall by strong, permanent magnetic wheels. The crawler is small enough to be installed on the tank wall by moving it through a 127 mm (5 in.) carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... causing a localized seam Oxide inclusion or skins, seams G 143 (a) Folded films of graphitic luster in the wall of the casting Lustrous carbon films, or kish tracks G 144 Hard inclusions in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... White plastic rulers are good for dark backgrounds. 2. Steel rulers will tell you if the something is magnetic (make sure your ruler is NOT magnetic). 3. Plastic rulers may work better if the subject is magnetic. Magnet—flat one and a “wand” with an extension. 1. Identifies magnetic materials...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006830
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of electromagnetic instruments, direct current and permanent magnet method instruments, and magnetic flux leakage instruments. Chemical analysis of the individual wires does not provide significant insight, because most specifications do not require any particular composition. Most wire ropes are manufactured...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... are sometimes needed to magnetize very large parts. Although magnetic-particle indications are easily seen, experience and skill are sometimes needed to judge their significance. To obtain a permanent record, additional (photography) equipment is required. Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003515
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to understand how safe and reliable that equipment or structure might be over this additional time of service. Common Measurement Techniques Many measurement techniques are employed in NDE. Those most widely used are visual, liquid penetrant, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, and radiographic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001393
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... that the first accumulator should be taken out of service permanently and replaced, and that the ultrasonic examination of the other vessel, which was not affected so seriously, should be extended to ascertain if it was in a condition that would justify repair. The results obtained from this examination...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001459
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... almost invariably originate at the surface, because the tests to be described, whilst capable of revealing clearly cracks communicating with a free surface, are unsuitable or are not to be relied upon implicitly for detecting any beneath the surface. Magnetic ParticleMethod This method of crack...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006755
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of your pictures Ruler—steel and plastic 1. Use in photos for scale. Steel rulers are gray and good on light backgrounds. White plastic rulers are good for dark backgrounds. 2. Steel rulers will tell you if something is magnetic (make sure your ruler is NOT magnetic). 3. Plastic rulers may work...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... in permanent molded and die cast aluminum alloys Hard spots (a) Defects that under some circumstances could contribute, either directly or indirectly, to casting failures. Adapted from International Atlas of Casting Defects , American Foundrymen’s Society, Des Plaines, IL Table 1 presents...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006772
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... microscopy and some nondestructive test methods that do not permanently alter the components may be possible. Magnetic-particle inspection and dye penetrants from liquid penetrant inspection techniques leave residues that may be objectionable, unless all parties are in agreement as to the procedure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003523
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... taken by others. The following are several of the methods used to document the condition of the accident scene. Permanent Visual Documentation One of the first steps of any scene investigation is to obtain a permanent record of the accident scene by visual documentation, such as photography...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... slight rearrangement of the wires will cause a permanent lengthening, known as constructional stretch, and a recoverable lengthening, which is elastic stretch. The constructional stretch, depending to some degree on the magnitude of the load imposed, amounts to approximately 0.5 to 0.75...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001396
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... and it will be useful to consider first in detail the mechanism of magnetite formation. Magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) is one of the oxides of iron—it is black and magnetic in nature. Boiler water will react with the clean surface of a steel tube to form a layer of magnetite, which serves subsequently to confer corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001724
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of the Rotor Windings Fig. 2 Wreckage of Generator Unit Showing Portion of Fractured “End Bell” (Forged Ring) in Center of Photo It is quite desirable that these end bells be made of nonmagnetic materials; a retaining ring of martensitic steel (magnetic) would materially decrease...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... is roughly perpendicular to the direction of tensile stress, but involves little or no permanent deformation. The fracture surface is usually rough and crystalline in appearance. The elastic-stress distribution in pure tension loading, in the absence of a stress concentration, is uniform across...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-tension power lines, third-party damage, arcing from lightning strikes and ground faults in power lines, and vibration. Nondestructive Examination Pipeline failure analysis investigations should include nondestructive examination (NDE) prior to any analysis that permanently alters the leak...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4