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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001480
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...Abstract Abstract One tube in a watertube boiler developed leakage from a perforation. The external surface was covered with a dark deposit indicative of local fusion. Perforation resulted from the development of a crack from the internal surface. Microscopic examination revealed extensive...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0091757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... (750 lb/h), 34 to 69 kPa (5 to 10 psi), and 125 deg C (260 deg F). The kiln developed perforations within eight months of operation. Investigation (visual inspection, metallurgical analysis, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and 44X micrographs) supported the conclusion that the sulfur and chlorine...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001108
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The curved parts of exit pigtails made of wrought Incoloy 800H tubing used in steam reforming furnaces failed by performance after a period of service shorter than that predicted by the designers. Examination of a set of tubes consisting of both curved (perforated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048318
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
...Abstract Abstract A resistance-welded carbon steel superheater tube made to ASME SA-276 specifications failed by pitting corrosion and subsequent perforation, which caused the tube to leak. The perforation was found to have occurred at a low point in a bend near the superheater outlet header...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091384
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... through-wall perforations and cracking along its axis. The perforations and the crack were at the 6 o'clock position. Investigation (visual inspection, radiography, unetched macrographs, and tensile testing) supported the conclusion that the failure occurred as result of years of exposure to ground water...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0048714
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
...) on the tube surfaces during the cooling process. Air flow over the tubes reversed direction every 585 mm as a result of baffling placed in the heat exchangers. An uneven ridgelike thinning and perforation of the tube wall on the leeward side of the tube was revealed by visual examination. Undercut pits...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001015
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... was to determine whether the hose failed during or before the accident. Fracture in the failed clamp was accompanied by obvious permanent deformation and evidence of local shearing at the ends of the perforation where fracture occurred, and in the adjacent perforation. The first test involved tightening the clamps...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c0047606
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
...Abstract Abstract Type 316L stainless steel pipes carrying brine at 120 deg C (250 deg F) and at a pH of about 7, failed by perforation at or near circumferential butt-weld seams. The failure was examined optically and radiographically in the field. Specimens were removed and examined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001141
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... examination of sections cut from the cracked area identified lamellar tearing as the principle cause of the cracking. This was surprising in 6 mm thick hull plates. Corrosion fatigue and general corrosion also contributed to hull plate perforation. Although it is probable that more lamellar tears exist near...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
...Abstract Abstract Plate perforation occurred in the cylindrical section and walls of the inlet foot (2.38 mm thick Incoloy 825 plate welded using INCO welding rod 135) of an inert gas fire prevention system in an oil tanker. Cross-sectional microprobe analysis showed the corrosion product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001458
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Two cases of failure of centrifuge baskets were investigated. The first involved a centrifuge running at approximately 1000 rpm. The basket was constructed from a perforated sheet of stainless steel rolled into a cylinder and joined by a single vee longitudinal weld. Detailed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001403
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... developed from a circumferential crack on the underside of the uppermost turn. Shorter cracks were found at a similar location on the bottom turn, and further leakage occurred at pinhole perforations adjacent to the crack in the top turn and near to a butt-weld in the coil. Microscopic examination revealed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001420
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
... attached over most of its circumference. The basket also contained a 22-gauge Monel metal liner that had been perforated by stabbing, raising pronounced burrs that faced each hole. Apart from the local spots of corrosion due to the lining, the inner surface of the basket showed little evidence of general...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
...Abstract Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... of specimens etched with mixed acids, metallographic examination, and chemical analysis) supported the conclusions that the premature failure of the tube by perforation at the hearth level resulted from (1) corrosion caused by sulfur contamination from the refractory cement in contact with the tube and (2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001321
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Abstract Abstract Tube failures occurred in quick succession in two boiler units from a bank of six boilers in a refinery. The failures were confined to the SAE 192 carbon steel horizontal support tubes of the superheater pack. In both cases, the failure was by perforation adjacent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001130
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract The failure during use of a seat on a heavy-duty swing set at an elementary school was investigated. The seat contained a perforated reinforcing sheet metal (galvanized type 430 stainless steel) insert covered by an elastomeric material. Specimens of the reinforcing sheet from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the result of poor operations or improper materials selection, and thus often preventable. heat exchangers drain lines corrosion bacterial growth copper stainless steel pitting perforations microscopy corrosion resistance 304L stainless steel (austenitic wrought stainless steel) UNS S30403...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091806
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... identical dimensions and had seen similar service, with failure occurring by perforation from internal pitting under sediment deposits. The presence of Cu 2− x S in the corrosion products implicated MIC by SRB as the cause of failure, but this occurred more rapidly in the cupronickel alloy. The copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c0091378
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... Perforation Piping C28000 UNS C28000 Dealloying/selective leaching A 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) diam tube was removed from a potable water supply due to leaks. The tube wall thickness was 0.711 mm (0.028 in.) with a thin layer of chromium plate on the OD surface. The tube had been in service for approximately...