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peel pits

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001848
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Logo of the society. Flowed metal initiated surface damages by peeling off and cracking [ 6 ] that necessitated a die change. Fig. 1 ( a ) General view of the failed die and ( b ) corresponding brass gas valve A typical die that had a service life about 30,000 hits was optically examined...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... discusses the types of imperfections that can be traced to the original ingot product. These include chemical segregation; ingot pipe, porosity, and centerline shrinkage; high hydrogen content; nonmetallic inclusions; unmelted electrodes and shelf; and cracks, laminations, seams, pits, blisters, and scabs...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... galvanic corrosion, uniform corrosion, pitting, crevice corrosion, intergranular corrosion, selective leaching, and velocity-affected corrosion. In particular, mechanisms of corrosive attack for specific forms of corrosion, as well as evaluation and factors contributing to these forms, are described. These...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001846
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... lubrication chromium steel circumferential wear marks peel pits heat tinting fatigue striations SEM imaging fatigue strength 42CrMo (chromium-molybdenum alloy steel) 38CrMoAl (chromium-molybdenum-aluminum alloy steel) References 1. Steel-iron parts-determination of nitrided...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006760
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... diameter and lengthwise stretching—before the final break ( Fig. 4 ). This is often accompanied by “orange peel,” in which each grain deforms in a slightly different manner. Orange peel is a result of a distribution of grain orientations, and it produces a rough appearance in originally smoothly machined...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... surface had a uniform dark gray oxide layer, which was wrinkled and peeling off. Fig. 1 Service-exposed Reheater tube ( a ) appearance of failure tubes, with deposit on fire-side and inner oxide scale peeling off, ( b ) pits on outside surface, and ( c ) Cross section micrograph of the inner oxide...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003544
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... planes that are unfavorably located relative to the maximum tensile stress. In observing locations of crack nucleation, the possibility of environment-related mechanisms—including pitting corrosion, stress-corrosion cracking, and other effects of a hostile environment—must be considered. For...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tail D 133 Irregularly distributed depressions of various dimensions extending over the casting surface, usually along the path of metal flow (cast steel) Flow marks, crow's feet D 134 Casting surface entirely pitted or pock-marked Orange peel, metal mold reaction, alligator skin...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... cracking and pulverization leading to deterioration in load carrying capacity, while high speed accelerates the debonding of fibers/fillers. This results in easy peeling off or pulling out of the reinforcing phase. High-modulus fibers are more effective in wear reduction than the high-strength fibers...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the minimum 58 HRC, resistance to pitting fatigue is reduced, and the possibility of brinelling (denting) of bearing raceways is increased. Because hardness decreases with increasing operating temperature, the conventional materials for ball and roller bearings can be used only to temperatures of...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lead to permanent dimensional changes. The most classical failure mode in rolling-contact components is RCF. Rolling-contact fatigue failure modes have previously been classified as pitting, case crushing, peeling, frosting, glazing, surface distress, and so on ( Ref 15 , 16 , 17 , 21 , 22...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006779
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... detection and characterization of the fatigue crack origin, because often tiny local effects, such as scratches, burrs, pits, or surface flaws, are the reason for the crack initiation. The crack origin can best be found by visual examination or by viewing the fracture surface at low magnifications (5 to 50...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-fitted or shrink-fitted members, where high degrees of stress concentration exist. Such stress concentration effectively reduces fatigue resistance, especially when coupled with fretting. Metallurgical stress raisers may be quench cracks, corrosion pits, gross nonmetallic inclusions, brittle second-phase...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to be locally thinned, allowing pitting or grain boundary corrosion to start. This corrosion pit or trench, produced by chemical attack on the metal surface, may act as a stress raiser and thus serve as a site for initiation of SCC. A preexisting mechanical crack, surface defect, fabrication flaw, or...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... cracks generally initiate at surface irregularities that may exist before or develop after the surface is exposed to the environment. Figure 9 ( Ref 16 ) illustrates common crack-initiation sites for SCC. Stress-corrosion cracking can initiate at locations subjected to pitting corrosion (if the pits...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003533
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... manufacturers market kits where the resin is mixed automatically when using an application gun. Different mixtures are available, providing different curing times at various temperatures. Upon drying, the polymeric material is simply peeled from the surface to be examined. Resolution of the cured resin is on...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... surface of interest. Some manufacturers market kits where the resin is mixed automatically when using an application gun. Different mixtures are available, providing different curing times at various temperatures. Upon curing, the polymeric material is simply peeled from the surface to be examined...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... understand a broader engineering failure. Note that some non-fracture-failure scenarios may ultimately lead to fracture. Wear processes, for example, can ultimately lead to fracture by galling and/or fretting fatigue. Other examples include fatigue crack initiation at surface pits from corrosion, cyclic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., and is then described as “orange peel.” It is also possible to use the SEM or atomic force microscopy to obtain three-dimensional surface maps showing surface profiles as discussed in other sections of ASM Handbook. Hull ( Ref 11 ) describes a technique using surface profiles that can be used to...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1