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pearlite transformation

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001125
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... a rather interesting problem, in addition to a quite simple explanation for failure. There was considerable evidence that thermal effects occurred, because the original drawn pearlite transformed to fine pearlite and some martensite. A likely sequence of events was that, at the moment of rupture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c0047343
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... operating temperatures exceeded those intended for this application. The presence of transformation products in the brake-rotor edge indicated that the lower critical temperature had been exceeded during operation. Critical temperature Pearlite Phase decomposition 60-40-18 UNS F32800 Thermal...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 5 Sample 2: inner wall, opposed to the fractured side, exposed to the hot gas flux after fracture. Microstructure: ferrite and pearlite (×500). Onset of the transformation of pearlite More
Image
Published: 01 December 1992
Fig. 5 Microstructures of the pipe, elbow, HAZ, and weld materials. (a) and (b) Ferrite and pearlite in the pipe and elbow specimens, respectively (c) Fine pearlite in the HAZ on the pipe side of the weld, typical of low-temperature transformation. (d) Weld specimen, showing a typically More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
pearlite, typical of low temperature transformation. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001207
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
..., The area in Fig. 5 is already carburized considerably but the steel is still hypo-eutectoid as indicated by the precipitation of ferrite at the austenitic grainboundaries. Further transformation has taken place in the pearlite stage and partly into the intermediate and martensitic stages. The area shown...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001184
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... disappeared from the structure of the chromium steel and the austenite has been transformed in some areas to Bainite. The inclusion itself has been transformed to pearlite as previously stated which proves that it is more alloy-deficient than the surrounding steel. In a pipe of austenitic 18/8 stainless...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... products that are present in steel. The first step in the transformation process is to heat the steel to its austenitizing temperature. The steel is then cooled rapidly to avoid the formation of pearlite, which is a relatively soft transformation product; to maximize the formation of martensite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001257
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... to the heat of welding ( Fig. 3 ). But the cracked pipe showed a ferrite-free mixed structure in the unaffected part consisting of pearlite and bainite phases ( Fig. 4 ). In the vicinity of the weld seam it had become coarse grained and was transformed into martensite ( Fig. 5 ). The cracking open...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001330
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of ferrite and reformed pearlite ( Fig. 9 ). The presence of transformation products (reformed pearlite) at the failure lip indicated that this portion of tube 2 experienced temperatures above its lower transformation temperature, 727 °C (1340 °F), at the time of failure. Opposite the tube 2 failure, the mid...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001800
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... (white) and pearlite (dark), Nital etch Fig. 5 Longitudinal section through a fatigue crack origin, showing white-etching untempered martensite at the initiation, as well as highly deformed ferrite and pearlite. The longitudinal direction is indicated Fig. 8 Detail of the flat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: ferrite and pearlite (×500). Onset of the transformation of pearlite Fig. 6 Sample 2 (fracture area): inner wall on the side of exposure to the hot gas flux starting from fracture. Severe pitting corrosion. General overview Fig. 7 Sample 2 (fracture area): fractured inner wall, exposed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... a chip breaker in the cutting tool or changing the microstructure of the workpiece steel. For example, heat treating AISI 1008 brake piston cups by reheating to the austenitizing region with a short soaking time and quenching transformed the microstructure from pearlite-ferrite to martensite-bainite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001322
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in the range of 538 to 677 °C (1000 to 1250 °F) ( Ref 1 ), which results in the transformation of pearlite to cementite. The formation of spheroidal carbides by the decomposition of pearlite is a time- and temperature-dependent reaction. Transformation at 677 °C (1250 °F) is about 100 times faster than at 538...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001214
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... the quench structure of low-carbon steel, the structure of the flattened area consisted of coarse acicular martensite with a small amount of pearlite (quench troostite) and ferrite. Therefore the sleeve was overheated and probably quenched directly from case. To prevent damage, it would have been necessary...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... microstructure to transform to bands of very hard martensite and bands of ferrite/pearlite. The presence of the hard martensite bands combined with MnS inclusions to promote the initiation of fatigue cracks and lead to a decreased resistance to crack propagation. Fig. 7 Bands in the microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001340
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... in.), consistent with the specified thickness, while along the fire-side, tube wall thickness measured as low as 0.178 cm (0.070 in.) near the fissures. Metallography Optical metallography on the coldside of tube 4 revealed a ferritic structure with small islands of lamellar pearlite, typical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001816
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... to rupture (15 mm away from it). Restored ferrite ( R ) is observed Fig. 8 Micrograph of a specimen superplastically deformed at 800 °C at a zone close to rupture (15 mm away from it). W-shaped decohesion between ferrite–ferrite–pearlite ( w ), r–r-shaped decohesion between ferrite and pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001821
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
.... This evidence shows that side A material did not undergo any phase transformation prior to or during the BLEVE event. Samples taken from side B of the fracture exhibited a markedly different microstructure, with equiaxed ferrite and pearlite, characteristic of normalized steel ( Fig. 7 ), indicating...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... not transform into austenite becomes tempered. Microstructure in this zone consists of refined ferrite and pearlite with minor amount of tempered martensite as seen in Fig. 7(e) . Figures 7(f) , 8(e) and 9(c) show the microstructures produced in the BM of un-cracked and cracked specimen and consist mainly...