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pearlite spacing

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the hard phase to improve the machinability. Modifying the cementite in the pearlite by transforming the cementite lamellae into spheroids by spheroidizing or increasing the pearlite spacing by annealing heat treatments increases the machinability ( Ref 21 ). Strontium, sodium, antimony, or calcium can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... pearlitic steels that the strength is determined by cementite interlamellar spacing, while the toughness and ductility are determined by austenite grain size. Ref 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 In this investigation, the mechanical properties of wheel steels are found to be affected by composition as well...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... the lamella spacing. If the stress was increased the pearlite grain cleaved along the slip lines shown above ( Fig. 5 ). Fig. 4 Slip line in a pearlite grain. Carbon replica. 15 000 × Fig. 5 Cleavage of a pearlite grain. Carbon replica. 10 000 × In our opinion this phenomenon can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... of the liner that had been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
...-eutectoid ferrite, and (3) non-metallic inclusions. Fig. 2 The pearlite colony size and fine spacing of the lamellae typical of the prestressing wire are shown. The dark, blocky phase between the pearlite colonies and at grain boundaries is pro-eutectoid ferrite. The coarser lamellae spacings here...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of fissures in the carbide (pearlite) zones of the microstructure. The thick internal deposit is the most damaging factor. There is usually an space between the scale and the pipe metal where hydroxyl or hydrogen ion concentrations are increased, causing active corrosion and the production of hydrogen...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... shaped lamellae. Some bainite was also present in the microstructure of rod section #3. The observed bainite has cementite lamellae with large spacing, offering weak resistance to acid attack of the ferrite. Rod section #1 had a duplex microstructure of ferrite/pearlite and martensite. The material...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... as the starting raw material. High-carbon steel wire rod is supplied to the wire-drawing units in either hot-rolled condition or after controlled cooling. In the former case, the steel wire rod possesses a coarse pearlitic structure that is not amenable to the large reductions normally encountered in wire drawing...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Global crack propagation direction from bottom to top in this scanning electron microscope view Fig. 42 Fully pearlitic steel fatigue fracture surfaces. Crack growth direction is from left to right in both images. (a) Intermediate crack growth rate (~0.1 μm/cycle). (b) Low crack growth rate...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... initiated from the base of pits. Source: Ref 19 Fig. 32 Transmission electron fractograph of aluminum alloy laboratory spectrum loading fatigue test. Striation spacing varies according to loading, which consisted of ten cycles at a high stress alternating with ten cycles at a lower stress...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... fractographs were prepared to attempt to locate fatigue striations and to estimate the number of cycles to failure. These fractographs showed configurations similar in appearance to fatigue striations, but it was concluded that they were pearlite lamellae, because the spacings agreed with pearlite dimensions...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
.... The spacing between the track is an indication of the relative shear displacement with each successive cycle. Furthermore, if shear stress components are high, tyre track will be absent or very widely spaced. However their existence indicated that the crack opened and closed with very little permanent...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... levels, while maintaining an optimum shaft speed, as in the case of diesel or gas turbines. Furthermore, it permits savings of space and weight, as reversing gears are not needed. However, the CPP system presents higher cost, as requires special parts such as shafting, hydraulics, and bridge controls...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... 15 ) suggests that the yield strength of the tubing decreases rapidly above 700–750 °F. The presence of the black sooty deposit on the inside of the coil as well as the presence of spheroidized pearlite on the tube ID indicates that this material was exposed to temperatures above 750 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... of the turntable rail revealed two new, through-flange cracks and a number of small, surface-connected cracks spaced randomly along the bottom rail corners ( Fig. 2 ). An investigation was requested to discern the cause of the repeated cracking and to evaluate the weld repair procedure. Fig. 2 Turntable...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...× Fig. 21 Inner-surface view of a failed tube showing scattered shallow pits. Original magnification: 16× Fig. 22 Schematic showing the mechanism of oxygen pitting Fig. 16 Microstructural evolution during high-temperature creep damage. (a) Initial ferrite plus pearlite. (b) In situ...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... this position ( Fig. 7 ). Examination of the fracture surface by scanning electron microscopy was made difficult because of the presence of corrosion products. However, microscopic crack progression markings were seen near the junction of cracks “A” and “B” ( Fig. 8 ), and these were found to have a spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001347
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... (640 ft) away; see Fig. 2 . Approximately 60 major fragments as large as 5227 kg (11,500 Ib) were ejected from the tank car. At the time of tank breach, a vapor space at the top of the car occupied approximately 20% of the tank volume (approximately 24.9 m 3 or 880 ft 3 ). Fig. 2 Fragment...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... consisting mainly tempered martensite with some amount of pearlite as shown in Fig. 7(c) . Moving away from the CGHAZ toward the BM is the FGHAZ that was not heated beyond Ac 3 temperature. Its microstructure is similar to that produced in CGHAZ but of finer grain size as shown in Fig. 7(d) and 8(c...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003537
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... ) Flutes on transgranular fracture surface Indicates corrosive environment and ductile fracture Crack propagates parallel to flutes Striated or ridged fracture Cyclic loading fatigue striations; Constant spacing, constant stress amplitude; variable spacing, variable stress amplitude...