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pearlite spacing

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 2 The pearlite colony size and fine spacing of the lamellae typical of the prestressing wire are shown. The dark, blocky phase between the pearlite colonies and at grain boundaries is pro-eutectoid ferrite. The coarser lamellae spacings here are about 0.1 to 0.2 microns. More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.matlhand.c9001263
EISBN: 978-1-62708-224-2
... pearlitic steel seemed to us unusual. The behaviour of the material in the vicinity of the fracture could be observed exactly by an electron microscopic examination of a carbon replica. Figure 4 shows a slip plane in the pearlite where the two crystal halves are displaced by about half the lamella spacing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... been exposed to the process stream was discolored. Failure of the spool was attributed to stress-corrosion cracking promoted by the presence of nitrates. Nitric acid contaminant in the sulfuric acid stream had diffused through the liner and accumulated in the annular space. Use of a liner that is more...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.rail.c9001531
EISBN: 978-1-62708-231-0
... side d γ and pearlite colony size d ρ on fatigue crack initiation life N i It has been shown in a previous investigation on fully pearlitic steels that the strength is determined by cementite interlamellar spacing, while the toughness and ductility are determined by austenite grain size. Ref...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001331
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... and pearlite in a Widmanstätten array. Figure 9 shows the microstructure near the inside surface in the fracture area. It was apparent that oxide-filled fissures occurred only in pearlite areas. Fig. 8 General microstructure of the pipe. Etched. 134× Fig. 9 Microstructure near the inside...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006826
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... to a rounder shape of the hard phase to improve the machinability. Modifying the cementite in the pearlite by transforming the cementite lamellae into spheroids by spheroidizing or increasing the pearlite spacing by annealing heat treatments increases the machinability ( Ref 21 ). Strontium, sodium, antimony...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001592
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
.... The cementite lamellae were short shaped lamellae. Some bainite was also present in the microstructure of rod section #3. The observed bainite has cementite lamellae with large spacing, offering weak resistance to acid attack of the ferrite. Rod section #1 had a duplex microstructure of ferrite/pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001715
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
.... Fig. 2 The pearlite colony size and fine spacing of the lamellae typical of the prestressing wire are shown. The dark, blocky phase between the pearlite colonies and at grain boundaries is pro-eutectoid ferrite. The coarser lamellae spacings here are about 0.1 to 0.2 microns. The pearlite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... controlled cooling. In the former case, the steel wire rod possesses a coarse pearlitic structure that is not amenable to the large reductions normally encountered in wire drawing. These hot-rolled wire rods are therefore heat treated by a process called “patenting” to develop a fine pearlitic microstructure...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.design.c0089657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-233-4
... the number of cycles to failure. These fractographs showed configurations similar in appearance to fatigue striations, but it was concluded that they were pearlite lamellae, because the spacings agreed with pearlite dimensions observed in optical micrographs. Scanning electron microscope views of the area...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001678
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... on the adjacent bolts A and C and as a result these bolts (bolts A and C) were overloaded and failed. Fatigue markings (tyre tracks) shown in Fig. 8 b seemed to be caused by small hard particles in the matrix interupting fatigue crack propagation. The spacing between the track is an indication...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001793
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... savings of space and weight, as reversing gears are not needed. However, the CPP system presents higher cost, as requires special parts such as shafting, hydraulics, and bridge controls. In the CPP design, it is possible to rotate the blades around its axis, with a consequent change in pitch and speed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006776
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Figure 32 illustrates the correlation between striations and loading. Determination that particular marks are striations, and consequent identification of characteristic appearance, has been accomplished by comparing striation spacing with macroscopic measurements of fatigue crack growth rate. Fig...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003539
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the correlation between striations and loading. Determination that particular marks are striations, and consequent identification of characteristic appearance, has been accomplished by comparing striation spacing with macroscopic measurements of fatigue crack growth rate. Fig. 32 Transmission electron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001314
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
.... There was considerable variation in the microstructure at the tube OD at the coil ID, which when examined at high magnification was a varying extent of spheroidization of the pearlite ( Figs. 11 ). No spheroidization was observed at the tube ID at the coil ID, or at any location on the tube at the coil OD. No cracks...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001308
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... applied. This and several subsequent cracks were repaired by welding. A recent scheduled inspection of the turntable rail revealed two new, through-flange cracks and a number of small, surface-connected cracks spaced randomly along the bottom rail corners ( Fig. 2 ). An investigation was requested...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001832
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... ventilation system of a HLW tank is shown in Fig. 2 . Fig. 1 Side view of high-level waste tank with ventilation system on tank top Fig. 2 Purge ventilation system of Tank 39, a Type IIIA tank Air enters the tank vapor space through a high-efficiency particulate (HEPA) filter assembly...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001630
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... microscopy was made difficult because of the presence of corrosion products. However, microscopic crack progression markings were seen near the junction of cracks “A” and “B” ( Fig. 8 ), and these were found to have a spacing of approximately 0.5 to 1.0 µm (20 to 40 µin.). Finer detail could not be detected...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006825
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... distribution due to maladjusted or worn fuel burners will have the same effect as an increase in heat flux. Prolonged overheating, usually at temperatures below Ac 1 (the temperature at which austenite begins to form) in carbon and low-alloy steels, causes decomposition of pearlite into ferrite...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of pearlite as shown in Fig. 7(c) . Moving away from the CGHAZ toward the BM is the FGHAZ that was not heated beyond Ac 3 temperature. Its microstructure is similar to that produced in CGHAZ but of finer grain size as shown in Fig. 7(d) and 8(c) . Figure 7(e) shows the IGHAZ that was partially...