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passive voltage contrast

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... sulfide and are associated with anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria such as desulfovibrio, desulfotomaculum, and desulfomonas . The dark pits are often surrounded by concentric rings varying in color from black to blue. In contrast, reddish-brown corrosion deposits (which will be discussed...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense insulated tightly adherent passive films from uniform-corrosion processes with the metal...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phosphoric-acid-based compound that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense, insulated, tightly adherent passive films from uniform...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... particulates and/or mechanical wear products, thus highlighting the risks associated with corrosion of long-term medical implants ( Ref 23 , 24 ). Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Pitting corrosion is characterized by localized attack that forms sharply defined holes. Metals that form passive oxide films...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006822
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be unacceptable to a standard. In contrast, a flaw refers to an undesirable imperfection, although its specific effect may not be determined. For specific and technical interpretations of these terms (and others such as discontinuity or indication ), the reader is referred to applicable standards, which...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... for the measurement of interfacial layer thickness Contrast at interfacial layer due to differences in the refractive index ( n ). n is usually predicted as the average of two phases; this method does not work if n is similar for both phases. Blend: styrene acrylonitrile (SAN)/polyamide (PA) Compatibilizer...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... of the controlled parameters may include heat input, current, voltage, pressure, preheat temperature, and so on. Once a weld has been made in production according to a procedure, then it requires a final quality evaluation to determine if it meets the targeted acceptance criteria. Construction codes clearly...