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passive electrical components

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... corrosivity of high-purity water is due to its high electrical resistance and few reducible cations. Passivity Essentially, passivity refers to the loss of chemical reactivity experienced by certain metals and alloys under particular environmental conditions. That is, certain metals and alloys become...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001390
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... not been carried out as specified. It was recommended that the sheathing material be fully annealed and that the outer surface be pickled and passivated. Electric heating elements Heat-distributing units Marine atmospheres Nuclear reactor components Sheaths 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... by electric arc processes at some joints and butt welded to flanged fittings at other joints. Some air may have been trapped in the top of this and other pipe runs. Fig. 1 Photograph of the inside of a stainless steel pipe with corrosion pits. The pipe was from a fire-sprinkler system for a car...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... than impure or natural waters. The low corrosivity of high-purity water is due to its high electrical resistance and few reducible cations. Passivity Essentially, passivity refers to the loss of chemical reactivity experienced by certain metals and alloys under specific environmental conditions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... electrical path A mixed-metal system in a common conducting electrolyte, where the components are electrically isolated, will not experience galvanic corrosion, regardless of the proximity of the metals or their relative potential or size. Factors Affecting Galvanic Corrosion The intensity...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006794
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... to the scratch load, evident by its larger critical load (approximately 8 g) at which the electrical contact resistance drops, corresponding to failure of the passive film under the scratching load. The passive film on the yttrium-free sample fails under a smaller critical load (approximately 5.5 g). Source...
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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... The three essential components for galvanic corrosion are: Materials possessing different surface potential A common electrolyte A common electrical path A mixed-metal system in a common electrolyte that is electrically isolated will not experience galvanic corrosion, regardless...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001536
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... power-generating plants are presently operating in the United States, with a combined generating capacity of 106,905 MWe. In 1990, they generated 20.6% of the nation's electrical energy demand. 1 Component failures occur from time to time in these plants, and the rigorous in-service inspection...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006811
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... treatments include mechanical polishing, electropolishing, and nitric acid passivation ( Ref 59 ). Strategies for corrosion mitigation also vary by alloy type. An important consideration for failure analysis of nitinol components is the possibility of postexplantation corrosion. It has been demonstrated...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006758
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... data generated, and methods utilized, during acceptance are still applicable to aid with the failure analysis. If the assembly is a mechanical component, the case may be that only the amount of wear or electrical connection may be of importance and other parts such as the casing or mounting points may...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... intergranular pitting of 304L stainless steel condenser tubes in a geothermal electrical power plant operating at >100 °C (> 210 °F) has been reported ( Ref 16 ). In another example, microbiological activity and chloride concentrated under scale deposits were blamed for the wormhole pitting of carbon...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., little if any metallic iron is observed. Figure 12 shows the high-resolution iron spectrum for this sample compared to a high-resolution iron spectrum obtained from a well-passivated stainless steel. Note that the iron metal component on the well-passivated steel is much more prominent compared...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006827
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... Schematic diagram and failure modes of a solder joint. IMC, intermetallic compound; PCB, printed circuit board Figure 6 shows the conventional simplified one-dimensional (1-D) model of a solder joint series stiffness system. External or passive loading from the component/package can be expressed...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003534
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... steel. Note that the Fe metal component on the well-passivated steel is much more prominent compared to this “corroded” steel surface. Fig. 11 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high-resolution iron spectrum of stainless steel surface Fig. 12 X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy high...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... and will be more or less electrically conducting according to the type of iron sulfide present. While a continuous film of iron sulfide can passivate the metal surface, dispersed particles of various iron sulfides in contact with steel can cause corrosion. King ( Ref 26 , 27 ) reviewed the role of iron sulfides...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... equipment. Each of these wear examples has a corrosive component that results from exposure to reactive environments. Fig. 1 Worn wire screen in minerals processing plant showing effects of sliding wear in moist environment Crushing and Grinding Corrosive wear is prevalent in the grinding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., cracks, pits, etc. Only sensitive to surface flaws Low cost, intuitive. May be enhanced with PT, MT, IR, UV, laser reference lines, video, and magnifying lenses All Thermal/infrared (IR)—includes passive thermal inspections, flash thermography, and laser flying spot/line technology Surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001004
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... sampling method, represents an attractive approach to the toughness assessment of critical power plant components. Grain boundaries Phosphorus Segregation Stream turbines Studs Temper embrittlement 1CrMoV Creep fracture/stress rupture Introduction During a routine maintenance overhaul...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) Microscopic examination and analysis of fracture surfaces Stress analysis to determine the actual stress state of the failed component Fracture mechanics Determination of the fracture mode Following these topics on the analysis of fractures, separate sections also briefly describe factors...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003554
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... species must have access to potential initiation sites and to growing crack tips. For initiation to occur, the embrittler must wet (or adhere in solid form) to the structural metal surface; the passive layer can be removed locally, either chemically or by strain. There is no correlation between...