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particulate-reinforced polymers

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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract This article reviews the abrasive and adhesive wear failure of several types of reinforced polymers, including particulate-reinforced polymers, short-fiber reinforced polymers (SFRP), continuous unidirectional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP), particulate-filled composites, mixed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006869
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... a theoretical synthesis of the literature regarding the wear mechanisms of: Particulate-filled polymers Short fiber–reinforced polymers (SFRPs) Polymers with continuous fibers Mixed reinforcements (either with fiber and filler or with two types of fillers known as hybrid composites) and fabrics...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006935
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... to untreated filler. This improvement is due to a reduction of the stress-concentration effect of the filler. Fiber Reinforcement The addition of glass, carbon, inorganic, or high-tensile organic fibers to a polymer will have a dramatic effect on its physical properties. These properties can vary from...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and occasional scratching, or a bathtub may have water plasticization coupled with sliding and compression. Some glassy thermoplastics filled with fibers or particulate fillers have been used for tribological applications. The problem encountered with such polymers is their tendency to fail in a catastrophic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006916
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... be used effectively for obtaining the spectra of particulate contaminants or of layers of a laminated product. The failure of polymer and plastic materials is often caused by using the wrong raw materials or the inhomogeneous distribution of the components inside the polymeric material. Also...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006849
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... geometries have been used to ensure a uniform shear field on the material being tested. However, the principal limitation is that the particulates or reinforcements in filled materials might be trapped at the cone’s center. This could affect the critical gap setting, causing erroneous readings. A second...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a window pan or automobile body part made of glassy polymer may be subjected to water, dust, and occasional scratching, or a bathtub may have water plasticization coupled with sliding and compression. Some glassy thermoplastics filled with fibers or particulate fillers have been used for tribological...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Abstract This article discusses the thermal properties of engineering plastics and elastomers with respect to chemical composition, chain configuration, and base polymer conformation as determined by thermal analysis. It describes the processing of base polymers with or without additives...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of Nonmetals The root-cause failure analysis of polymers is becoming more common. A significant portion of polymer failures are environmentally influenced. Environmental factors can have significant detrimental effects on polymer components with respect to strength and appearance. Environmental effects...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006933
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... complement the qualitative information produced by FTIR analysis. The relative loadings of various constituents within a plastic material—including polymers, plasticizers, additives, carbon black, mineral fillers, and glass reinforcement—can be determined. The assessment of a plastic resin composition...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... Property Modifiers Fillers Unfilled engineering polymers have several limitations, such as poor tensile strength, compressive strength, modulus, hardness, oil swell, and aging, that confine them from use in real-world engineering applications. To overcome these limitations, polymers are reinforced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006932
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... on properties of plastics. It explains the use of high-modulus graphite fibers in amorphous polymers. high-modulus graphite fibers plastics thermal diffusivity thermal expansion thermal stress ENGINEERING PLASTICS, as a general class of materials, are prone to the development of internal stresses...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.9781627083959
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006911
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of an abrasive material at the polymer sliding interface is called a third-body abrasive wear. When this wear system is tested, particulates of varying size and hardness are placed in between the polymer and the countersurface. The abrasive can be added to the experiment initially to replicate a specific sliding...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006924
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... or control the cure speed. Many thermosets incorporate particulate fillers, fiber reinforcement, or other additives to modify properties, for example, to reduce cost, to modify physical properties such as thermal expansion or toughness, or to reduce shrinkage during cure. As a result of the chemical...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006915
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... corresponding to soft-and-weak, soft-and-tough, hard-and-brittle, and hard-and-tough plastics and temperature-modulus plots representative of polymers with different degrees of crystallinity, cross-linking, and polarity. It explains how viscosity varies with shear rate in polymer melts and how processes align...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006943
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
.... Fig. 13 SEM fractographs of a polypropylene reinforced with calcium carbonate fractured by impact at liquid nitrogen temperatures. (a) Original magnification: 2500×. (b) Original magnification: 10,000× Fracture Mechanics in Polymer Fractography The use of plastic components in industry has...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... angles to the surface. Such abrasion attacks ductile materials much more readily than it does hard, relatively brittle materials, as pointed out by Finnie ( Ref 90 ). Particulate erosion of a ductile steel impeller by a catalytic fluid that was not expected to be erosive is shown in Fig. 7 . Fig. 7...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... before providing the specimen to the analyst. The potential of altering the fracture surface during the investigative process reinforces the need for thorough documentation of the fracture during all stages of the failure analysis process. Fig. 12 Mud cracks on the surface of an intergranular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... recent publications ( Ref 13 , 14 ) present broader discussions of MIC, including a useful introduction to microbial problems seen with nonmetallic materials such as polymers, composites, concrete, glass, wood, and stone. Viable microorganisms can be found over a surprisingly wide range...