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particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy

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Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... the overvoltage. To obtain the emission of any desired x-ray, the overvoltage of the incident energy should be approximately 1.5 times that of the x-ray. Thus, in the example with copper, an incident electron energy of ≈12 keV or higher is needed to induce copper K α emission. By their very nature, handheld...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006771
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... A competing process to Auger electron generation is that of x-ray emission, the analytical signal for the technique known as energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). In general, x-ray emission is more pronounced for heavier elements, while the probability of Auger electron emission is greater from lighter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001336
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... identified chlorine as the primary corrosive agent ( Fig. 8 and 9 ). EDS results are shown for all elements above atomic number 4. The vertical scales represent x-ray counts per unit time, and thousands of electron volts. Fig. 8 Qualitative EDS analysis of the typical clean pipe (found...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006789
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Worn surfaces Visual inspection, roughness profiles Optical microscopy Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy X-ray diffraction and advanced techniques (such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman and Auger spectroscopy) Subsurface regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006764
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in service, based on surface analysis for residue of penetrant on the crack faces. Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and secondary ion mass spectroscopy are very sensitive chemical analysis techniques that have been used to test for penetrant residue on crack...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... , ed., American Society for Metals , Metals Park, Ohio , 1984 , p. 364 . 2. Personal conversation with Win Welsch, 15 Sept . 1999 , during meeting at the Army Research Lab, Maryland. 3. Residual Stress Measurement by X-Ray Diffraction - SAE J784a , Society of Automotive Engineers...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... examination, however, showed the presence of large number of secondary cracks on the fracture surfaces ( Fig. 5 ). Compositional analysis carried out by using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyzer attached to the SEM revealed that the corrosion products consisted of oxides of iron and chromium, and sulfur...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
.... Original magnification: 11× Fig. 21 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of a bungee cord fractured surface showing fillers to be calcium carbonate type Fig. 19 (a) Failed and (b) exemplar bungee cords Fig. 20 Bungee cord strands at failure showing broken appearance...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... in a natural-gas plant. Extensive secondary cracking and delaminations occurred within the area outlined in yellow Fig. 8 Radiograph of area A in Fig. 7 showing white areas (not penetrated by X-rays) owing to the presence of mercury in secondary cracks Fracture surfaces exhibited numerous...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... information is in the article “X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Measurement in Failure Analysis” in this Volume. Acoustic-Emission Inspection Acoustic-emission inspection detects and analyzes minute acoustic-emission signals generated by discontinuities in materials under applied stress. Proper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001770
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
..., metallographic samples were examined under scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Scanning electron micrographs revealed cracks and carbide precipitations at grain boundaries and within grains as shown in Fig. 6(a) through (d) . Transgranular cracks...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003525
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in order to evaluate its composition. The use of TGA in characterizing plastic composition is presented in examples 8 , 10 , 12 , and 15 in this article. Additionally, example 11 illustrates the quantification of an absorbed chemical within a failed plastic...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006785
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of environmentally induced cracking, this article deals only with SCC of metallic components. It begins by presenting terminology and background of SCC. Then, the general characteristics of SCC and the development of conditions for SCC as well as the stages of SCC are covered. The article provides a brief overview...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum of spherical inclusions analyzed from Fig. 105 Fig. 107 Backscatter image. Left side of image is base metal; right side is the defect area. Original magnification: 116× Fig. 108 Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy spectrum from an area...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003553
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... or incipient cracking. Breaking of a film ahead of an advancing crack permits crack propagation to continue in the metal. Rapid local breaking of the film without particles of film filling the exposed crack is required for rapid crack propagation. Intergranular cracking occurs when grain-boundary regions...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006808
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
.... Such inclusions produce a liquid metal embrittlement of the weld and may cause corrosion by a galvanic effect if exposed to corrosive media; therefore, they should be removed from the weld deposit. Both tungsten and copper inclusions can be identified visually, and x-ray inspection detects tungsten particles...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...-base superalloy 1040 1905 3 S-816 cobalt-base alloy 980 1795 3 Hastelloy X nickel-base superalloy 1205 2200 3 HX (17Cr-66Ni-bal Fe) 1150 2100 3 (a) Seamless tube. (b) Electric-resistance-welded tube General power plant classifications Table 2 General...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006812
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... practices should also be considered. Simple matters such as specifying and verifying the proper material and material condition are critical. One company has used portable optical emission spectroscopy equipment for chemical analysis to examine several bulk items supposedly made of alloy steels and found 1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.9781627083294
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4