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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 21 (a) The correlation of particle spacing with dimple size. Data are from several aluminum alloys, as indicated. Ellipse size indicates scatter. Source: Ref 44 . (b) Change in dimple size and onset of intergranular cracking as a function of aging time for a precipitation-hardened More
Image
Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 21 (a) Correlation of particle spacing with dimple size. Data are from several aluminum alloys. Ellipse size indicates scatter. Source: Ref 45 . (b) Change in dimple size and onset of intergranular cracking as a function of aging time for a precipitation-hardened titanium alloy (B-1208CA More
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... impart two-body wear damage to component parts. They are not constrained by another solid, as distinguished from grinding, which is discussed later. Abrasive Particle Characteristics Abrasive particle characteristics, such as shape, density, size, hardness, and their relation to wear rate...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006790
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... machinery occurs primarily in the pumping of sand slurries; in size-classifying equipment such as cyclones and gravity classifiers; in chute liners, screens, and flotation impellers; and in hydraulic and pneumatic conveying operations. Generally, the impingement angles and particle impact forces are so low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003560
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... machinery occurs primarily in the pumping of sand slurries; in size-classifying equipment such as cyclones and gravity classifiers; in chute liners, screens, and flotation impellers; and in hydraulic and pneumatic conveying operations. Generally, the impingement angles and particle impact forces are so low...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract Erosion occurs as the result of a number of different mechanisms, depending on the composition, size, and shape of the eroding particles; their velocity and angle of impact; and the composition of the surface being eroded. This article describes the erosion of ductile and brittle...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... from erosion ( Ref 44 – 46 ). Erosion occurs as the result of several different mechanisms, depending on the composition, size, and shape of the eroding particles; their velocity and angle of impact; and composition and properties of the surface material being eroded. The sensitivity of elastic...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003538
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Holman, University of Tennessee In materials containing a dual distribution of particle sizes (for example, MnS inclusions and spheroidal carbides in a quenched and tempered steel), a dual-dimple size is often seen on the fracture surface. In this case, the MnS inclusions are larger than...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006775
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particle shows multiple cracks and shattering. Courtesy of R. Holman, University of Tennessee In materials containing a dual distribution of particle sizes (for example, MnS inclusions and spheroidal carbides in a quenched and tempered steel), a dual-dimple size is often seen on the fracture surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001516
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
..., or of a continuous thin film. For higher storage density the particles are of submicron size and densely packed. They are held on a substrate by an organic resinous binder and dispersed uniformly in the mix by additions of organic dispersants. Aluminum or chromium oxide particles are added to keep the head clean...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... in the etched microstructures. The presence of abnormal temperature gradients along or across the airfoil section may be determined from changes in carbide, γ′ particle size and the matrix grain size in Ni-base superalloys [ 4 ] and from changes in matrix carbide particle size and grain size distribution in Co...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001752
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... the required particle size and spacing to cause the “tell-tale” planar dimpled facets (PDF) on the impact fracture [ 4 ]. There is a second mechanism that weakens the grain boundaries especially near large grain boundary junctions if the preheat temperature exceeds the incipient melting temperature of grain...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of abrasive particles against the surface of material. Source: Ref 12 As previously noted, the wear of reinforced polymers is influenced by the properties of the matrix, the filler, and their bonding; the ratio of grooving depth to the filler size; the shape and size; orientation distribution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047968
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... Abstract The radial-contact ball bearings (type 440C stainless steel and hardened) supporting a computer microdrum were removed for examination as they became noisy. Two sizes of bearings were used for the microdrum and a spring washer that applied a 50 lb axial load on the smaller bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
.... It was concluded that overheating or burning of the forging, which classically results in large grain size, intergranular fractures, and fine oxide particles dispersed throughout the grains was the possible reason for the failure. Intergranular fracture Overheating Piping Stress relieving ASME SA182-F304...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048757
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... by subjecting the overheated tube to a flattening test that the tube no longer met ASTM B 337 specifications. Large grain size and numerous needlelike hydride particles were disclosed in the microstructure of the overheated tube. Heating to approximately 815 deg C was revealed by the presence of the flaky oxide...
Image
Published: 01 January 2002
reagent showing fine grain size and hydride particles (faint black needles). 200×. (e) Overheated tube specimen etched in Kroll's reagent showing large grain size and hydride particles (small needles). 200×. (f) Transverse section of overheated tube specimen at outside surface showing 0.05-mm (0.002 More
Image
Published: 01 June 2019
showing fine grain size and hydride particles (faint black needles). 200x. (e) Overheated tube specimen etched in Kroll's reagent showing large grain size and hydride particles (small needles). 200x. (f) Transverse section of overheated tube specimen at outside surface showing 0.05-mm (0.002-in.) thick More
Image
Published: 30 August 2021
tube specimen etched in Kroll’s reagent showing fine grain size and hydride particles (faint black needles). Original magnification: 200×. (e) Overheated tube specimen etched in Kroll’s reagent showing large grain size and hydride particles (small needles). Original magnification: 200×. (f) Transverse More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0089256
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Alloy steel forgings used as structural members of a ski chair lift grip mechanism were identified to have contained forging laps (i.e., sharp-notched discontinuities) during an annual magnetic particle inspection of all chair lift grip structural members at a mountain resort...