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particle coarsening

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001850
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...; thirdly degradation of microstructure by thermal coarsening of particles and fourthly the damage by gas-environmental attack. Initiation of creep in the form of void formation at the grain boundaries is observed in the microstructure. Small specimens were cut from across the thickness of the samples...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0046998
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... the outer surface of the tube. This region had a fine grain size (ASTM 4 to 7) and was heavily carburized, showing extensive carbide separation along the grain boundaries (light-etching constituent) and a few scattered small gray particles of sulfide and black particles of silicate. The third micrograph...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001479
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... of a more brittle type, this being associated with penetration of material by molten copper, the temperature reached obviously having been high enough to fuse particles of copper which were present in the scale covering the internal surface of the tube: the melting point of copper is 1083 °C. Such copper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001818
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... corrosion nickel-base superalloy metal loss wall thinning grain coarsening stereomicroscopy temperature Incoloy 800 (nickel-base superalloy) UNS N08800 Introduction and Background Information Investigation and Results Discussion Conclusions Recommendations Acknowledgments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001107
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... intergranularly and then within the grains. Excessive formation and coarsening of these carbides lead to matrix consumption and subsequent transformation to ferrite and graphite. Stresses generated by phase transformations promote decohesion of metal particles and graphite, and gross metal wastage (dusting...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...: pearlite decomposes and the carbides precipitate at the grain boundaries and coarsen. The typical lamellar structure of pearlite changes to a particle structure. Such pearlite steel exhibits a tendency toward pearlite spheroidisation after long-term exposure to high temperatures. Structural changes form...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003532
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... lead to grain or particle coarsening, softening or phase transformations, and, in extreme cases, burning or melting. Different materials have different sensitivities to this problem, but the need to balance the wheel break-down rate with the hardness of the piece being sectioned produces the various...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001571
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... or after 10 min. at 1100°C. At the same time, the morphology of the delta ferrite changes. In the base metal, they observed that the prior-austenite grain size begins to coarsen at 1000°C. Table 2 presents, for comparison, data for the TMI-2 specimens. Note that only K-13 has characteristics similar...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006765
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., these wheels are called “consumable” wheels, because they wear away with use. If they do not wear at the proper rate, dull abrasives rub against the region being cut, generating heat and altering the existing true microstructure. If this heat becomes excessive, it can lead to grain or particle coarsening...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001600
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... difference in the size of dispersoids could be due to differences in solutionizing treatment temperatures. A larger dispersoid would be associated with a higher solutionizing temperature. Since the dispersoid particles remain undissolved during the solutionizing treatment, they would coarsen at higher...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003517
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... are stress rupture, creep, low- or high-cycle fatigue, thermal fatigue, and coating degradation in gas turbines. For high-temperature tubing and piping components, embrittlement phenomena can occur at high temperatures due to metallurgical instabilities; for example, carbide coarsening, sigma-phase formation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... particles and inclusions typically provide the nucleation sites for initiation of the microvoids, which then grow and coalesce as deformation progresses further. Ductile fracture by void growth and coalescence can occur by two modes during tensile loading. Mode I is plane-strain fracture, where void growth...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001657
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... be revealed in the etched microstructures. The presence of abnormal temperature gradients along or across the airfoil section may be determined from changes in carbide, γ′ particle size and the matrix grain size in Ni-base superalloys [ 4 ] and from changes in matrix carbide particle size and grain size...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... failure analysis or incomplete root-cause investigation can be very misleading or even dangerous. Ductile fracture occurs from the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of microvoids during deformation. Second-phase particles or inclusions typically provide the nucleation sites for initiation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... that measures all of the aluminum (if the aluminum is not macrosegregated) and once using a wet method on a solution that has been strained to remove the insoluble aluminum oxides, can provide information on why an apparently “conforming” aluminum-killed steel has a coarsened grain structure. Another...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... of ε-carbide. Loss of tetragonality Contraction 2 200–300 392–572 Decomposition of retained austenite Expansion 3 230–350 446–662 ε-carbides decompose to cementite Contraction 4 350–700 662–1292 Precipitation of alloy carbides. Grain coarsening Expansion Source: Ref 9...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001837
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... was the result of higher hardenability of coarse grains. On the basis of fractography and microscopic examination, the principal cause of brittle intergranular cracking in HAZ of weldment was weakening of grain boundaries due to grain coarsening at higher temperatures because of high welding heat input...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... mechanisms, such as galvanic corrosion, crevice corrosion, and pitting corrosion; creep; and fatigue. Impingement by solid particles can contribute to erosion-corrosion, or it can accelerate corrosion in the various gaseous and molten environments. Primary mechanisms include: Oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003524
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to the laboratory, the replicas may be gold coated and examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Foreign particles removed from the fracture surface also may be analyzed. The RTV rubber replica can be applied over a rather large area with less chance of missing a critical spot. A combination...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003512
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1