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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0048804
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Several cases of failures in gray cast iron paper machine dryer rolls were evaluated. The rolls were found have ground outer cylindrical surfaces on which the paper web is dried. They were found to rotate about their longitudinal axes at speeds from 50 to 250 rpm while...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
...Abstract Abstract Two suction rolls at the first press section of a 25 ft. wide paper machine developed cracks within two years of service. The rolls were austenitic stainless steel castings made of ASTM A 351 Grade CF8M alloy containing molybdenum. The rolls were exposed to slightly acidic...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...-pressuiized shell in a paper-drying machine ruptured during normal operation. Applications Paper machines producing soft types of paper (tissue and toweling) or similar products utilize a single large Yankee dryer for final drying of the paper sheet. This Yankee dryer was internally Ceased with steam...
Image
Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 1 Schematic drawing of paper machine dryer section showing notes from actual inspection; large diameter rolls are dryer rolls; small diameter rolls are felt guide rolls More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001842
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A felt guide roll fractured in-service on a paper manufacturing machine, damaging the belt as well as multiple dryer rolls, nearby felt guide rolls, and the frame of the machine. The investigation included visual and stereoscopic examination, chemical and microstructural...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0090276
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... Recommendations included design changes in the head/shell joint, and detailed preventive maintenance inspection procedures were also suggested. Bolts Cracking (fracturing) Design Paper machines Pressure vessels Preventative maintenance Yankee dryer Cast iron (Other, general, or unspecified) fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001565
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... resistant to SCC. The candidate materials are commercial grade unalloyed titanium or Inconel 600, which have superior resistance to SCC compared to austenitic stainless steels. Paper machines Piping Weld defects White liquor 304 UNS S30400 Joining-related failures Stress-corrosion cracking...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001564
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... Paper machines 316 UNS S31600 Stress-corrosion cracking Transgranular fracture An 8-inch diameter stainless steel black liquor feed pipe to a carbon steel digester had failed within 1 year of service. The material was type 316 molybdenum containing austenitic stainless steel. The service...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001563
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
.... As a corrective measure, a solid Inconel liner was recommended in the areas of direct steam impingement. Cladding Inlet cones Paper machines Inconel 600 UNS N06600 ASME SA212-B Intergranular corrosion Erosion - corrosion The Inconel clad carbon steel inlet cone failed in a localized area after 7...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... was replaced with an Inconel clad carbon steel inlet cone to combat the SCC. Chlorides Inlet cones Paper machines 304L UNS S30403 Stress-corrosion cracking The Pandia digester is a long cylindrical vessel which uses alkaline sulfite liquor to cook sawdust for pulping. The cylindrical vessel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c9001567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... to stress-relief heat treatment following fabrication and welding. Chlorides Evaporators Heat exchangers Paper machines 316L UNS S31603 Stress-corrosion cracking The falling film black liquor evaporator consisted of flat twin plate heat exchangers and were employed in several effects...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0091622
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... buildup. If redesign was impossible, an alloy more resistant to Cl-SCC, such as a duplex stainless steel or a high-molybdenum (4 to 6%) austenitic stainless steel, should be used. Chlorides Digesters Paper machines CF-8M UNS J92900 Stress-corrosion cracking A CF-8M (cast type 316) neck...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.pulp.c0089567
EISBN: 978-1-62708-230-3
... and/or material quality from service. Casting defects Cold shuts Dryer heads Paper machines Stress concentration Gray iron Casting-related failures A paper-drier head manufactured from gray cast iron was removed from service as a result of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) detection of cracklike...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001243
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... are replaced after 8 months. The bearings are lubricated by a molybdenum sulfide paste. The operation conditions for this machine differ from others with longer .bearing life in that temperature differences are more pronounced and also thicker paper is compressed. Therefore it needed to be investigated whether...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c9001583
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
... “Improper Machining” as the Major Cause Multiple crack initiation sites and very low fatigue cycles in the original testing indicate that something more happened than just incomplete hardening by about 0.5 HRC points lower in “C” than typical values shown in Table 3 of the original paper...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001619
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of the splines. SEM examination revealed the splined shaft failed by fretting fatigue. Fretting fatigue Paper machines Shafts (power) 4340 UNS G43400 Fretting wear Fatigue fracture Wood chips can be efficiently turned into fiber for newsprint manufacture by the process of disc refining...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001601
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Flow forming technology has emerged as a promising, economical metal forming technology due to its ability to provide high strength, high precision, thin walled tubes with excellent surface finish. This paper presents experimental observations of defects developed during flow...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001725
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... instantaneous brittle failure which wrecked the machine, fortunately without human casualty. Forgings Retaining rings Turbogenertors Fe-0.74C-10Mn-5Ni-3.5Cr Brittle fracture Fatigue fracture Introduction In 1955 Sir Claude Gibb of C. A. Parsons & Co., the British engineering firm...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003519
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... to function properly.” Failures come in all shapes and sizes. They can be individual parts, entire machines, or a process. Broken down further, failures can be physical, paper, or thinking/cultural in origin. These possibilities expand the concept of a failure, because they introduce failures that can...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c9001502
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... spur tooth bull gears that had spalling teeth was submitted for evaluation ( Fig. 1 ). Fig. 1 Spur gear tooth, SAE 4147H, quenched and tempered to 311 HB, machined completely, induction hardened with a tooth space inductor by traversing one tooth space at a time. (a) Surface spalling along one...