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Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003543
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the aluminum matrix (original dendrites), but can be difficult to see because fracture surface morphology is impacted by cleavage in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 SEM images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001351
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
...Results of chemical analysis Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, wt% Bellows Chemical requirements for AISI 347 stainless steel Carbon 0.076 0.08 max Chromium 17.8 17–19 Nickel 9.4 9–13 Manganese 1.34 2.00 max Silicon 0.85 1.00 max...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001796
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... of the bearing illustrating areas of the applied preloading is shown in Fig. 2b . The raceways and rolling elements exhibited uniform fluting-type damages on both contact surfaces with no evidence of fatigue spalling damage. In addition, scoring marks attributed to hard particle contaminations, such as silicon...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001662
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... of the fractures revealed high cycle, low amplitude fatigue, and the problem was traced to vibration during road transport. Further failures were avoided by improved design and packing. This paper illustrated the value of SEM fractography when a rapid investigation is needed under the pressures of a fast moving...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... tube Iron oxides alone are not protective above 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 5 ). Chromium, aluminum, and/or silicon assist in forming scales, which are more protective at higher temperatures ( Ref 6 ). Chromium oxide is stable up to 983 °C (1800 °F), above which the oxide volatizes to gaseous CrO 3...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001020
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Results of chemical analysis Table 1 Results of chemical analysis Element Composition, % Strut alloy 7014 alloy (a) Aluminum bal bal Silicon 0.15 0.50 (max) Iron 0.28 0.50 (max) Copper 0.47 0.30–0.7 Manganese 0.47 0.30–0.7 Magnesium 2.90 2.2–3.2...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006778
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... in second-phase (silicon) particles and other second phases. Fig. 1 Scanning electron microscopy images of dimple-rupture fractures. (a) Fracture of low-alloy medium-carbon steel bolt (SAE grade 5). Original magnification: 1750×. (b) Equiaxed tensile dimples originating around the graphite nodules...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001371
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Silicon 0.32 0.33 0.33 1.00 max Chromium 12.47 12.30 12.33 11.5–13.5 Phosphorus 0.014 0.016 0.016 0.040 max Sulfur 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.030 max Results of hardness testing Table 2 Results of hardness testing Sample Hardness, HRC Range Average B 26...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... of a morphological complication and ionic diffusion through the scale ( Ref 3 ). Iron oxides alone are not protective at temperatures higher than 550 °C (1020 °F) ( Ref 3 ). Table 1 lists suggested maximum temperatures for various alloys without excessive scaling. Chromium, aluminum, and silicon assist...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003508
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
...) by decarburization D 241 Adherence of oxide after annealing Oxide scale D 242 Adherence of ore after malleablizing (white heart malleable Adherent packing material D 243 Scaling after anneal Scaling Incomplete Casting E 100: Missing portion of casting (no fracture) E 110...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001831
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... and was packed with molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) lithium grease. Metallurgical structures and chemical compositions of the bearing’s matrix materials were inspected using a microscope and photoelectric direct reading spectrometer. SEM/EDS was used to examine the local morphology and composition of fracture...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the composition specification for 17-4PH stainless steel, the metal plating was cadmium, and the paint primer coat was a zinc-chromate type. The cross section of the closed crack showed that the initial 0.18 mm (0.007 in.) of the crack mouth was packed with debris ( Fig. 9 ) that principally contained...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003510
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., a CCT, not a TTT, diagram should be used. When steel is slowly cooled, it undergoes a crystal structure (size) change as it transforms from a more densely packed austenite (face-centered cubic, or fcc) to a less densely packed body-centered cubic (bcc) structure of ferrite. At faster cooling...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003562
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... with three alloys of the same crystal structure, increasing hardness is shown to lead to a decrease in the critical amplitude between partial and total slip ( Ref 47 ). The materials were copper, copper silicon, and austenitic stainless steel, all materials of low stacking fault energy; as a consequence...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006786
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Y.S. , and Holroyd N.J.H. , Lead-Induced Solid Metal Embrittlement of an Excess Silicon Al-Mg-Si Alloy at Temperatures of −4 °C to 80 °C, Metall. Trans. A , Vol 23 ( No. 6 ), June 1992 , p 1679 – 1689 10.1007/BF02804363 • Lukowski J.T. , Kasul D.B. , Heldt L.A...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003568
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... account for the shape of the erosion curve as a function of impact angle. Fig. 3 Experimental and predicted curves of erosion of aluminum by 120-mesh silicon carbide particles at 152 m/s (500 ft/s) The other component of erosion is produced by the component of velocity perpendicular...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003572
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in adhesive wear mode. Abrasive wear behavior generally is evaluated by abrading it under load against hard rough surfaces such as paper or wheel impregnated with silicon carbide (SiC), flint, alumina, and so on, or a rough metallic disc. Abrasive wear failure of FRPs occurs generally because of matrix...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006769
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
..., it is impractical or impossible to insert a sample into the SEM chamber. In cases such as these, the surface morphology can still be examined at high magnifications using an SEM by making a replica of the surface. Production of a replica involves placing a suitable polymeric material, such as silicone or cellulose...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... elements or to one of the needle-roller type may be sufficient. When equipment is to be transported, one of the following preventive measures should be adopted: (1) dismantle the machine, (2) remove the rolling-element bearings and fit temporary wooden packings in their place, or (3) use clamps to lock...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... angle. Fig. 3 Experimental and predicted curves of erosion of aluminum by 120-mesh silicon carbide (SiC) particles at a velocity of 152 m/s (500 ft/s). Source: Ref 8 The other component of erosion is produced by the component of velocity perpendicular to the surface. Bitter called...