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oxidizing acid

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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c0045918
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, fluorine, and chlorine. Investigation into the processing history of the part showed the tenacious oxide film formed by the affinity of niobium for oxygen - even when heat treated in a vacuum – was removed with a combination of strong acids: nitric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001066
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A flanged 100 mm (4 in.) diam low-carbon steel spool piece lined with Teflon was removed from a sulfuric acid denitrification system after cracks were observed in the painted coating. Visual and microstructural examination along with SEM fractography revealed scaled iron...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0048791
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... strength of 807 MPa (117 ksi), and the material should therefore meet the 517-MPa (75-ksi) tensile-strength requirement. A cross section was ground, polished, lightly etched in 10% oxalic acid, and examined optically. Intergranular cracks filled with oxide were observed to have depths up to about 8 mm...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.chem.c9001718
EISBN: 978-1-62708-220-4
...Abstract Abstract Post-service destructive evaluation was performed on two commercially pure zirconium pump impellers. One impeller failed after short service in an aqueous hydrochloric acid environment. Its exposed surfaces are bright and shiny, covered with pockmarks, and peppered...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c9001676
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... the interaction with gamma radiation) and to prevent corrosion. A number of failures have occurred over the years because of a loss of the He cover gas in the assembly. This has resulted in either acid attack on the Inconel 600 sheath in a wet environment or gaseous corrosion in a dry environment. In the latter...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c9001164
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... sensitization and susceptibility to aqueous intergranular corrosion. Chemical analysis showed the predominant acid radical to be sulfate (6.20% in the carbonaceous deposit and 0.60% in the corrosion product), suggesting that oxidation of SO2 in the flue gas caused the corrosion. Moisture condensation...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046966
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... method. Analysis (visual inspection, 100x/500x metallographic examination of sections etched with a mixture of ferric chloride, hydrochloric acid, and methanol, and bend tests) supported the conclusions that cracking of the airfoil sections was caused by thermal fatigue and was contributed to by low...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0047165
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
..., and the surfaces became oxidized. Because the fracture surface of the second wheel half had chromic acid stains, it was obvious that the forging defect was open to the surface during anodizing. No recommendations were made except to notify the manufacturer. Aircraft components Defects Forgings Wheels...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., with the evolved gases likely to be neutral to acidic. Ash deposition, thermally induced stress, and particulate erosion may cause conditions that accelerate localized corrosion by cracking the protective oxide layer. Iron, nickel, and cobalt superalloys owe their unique strength, up to a fairly high threshold...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006783
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... a phosphoric-acid-based compound that reacts with the rust to produce an oxide that makes the surface passive and seals the surface from water and other solutions. In contrast to the active surfaces formed typically on steels, some metals form dense, insulated, tightly adherent passive films from uniform...
Book Chapter

Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003548
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in the environment and is carried away or produces a loosely adherent, porous coating now greater in thickness. Because of the porosity in the oxidation (rust), this metal is still considered active or able to continue degrading. Coating specialists have been able to formulate a phosphoric-acid-based compound...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003549
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... + → Zn 2 + + H 2 Zinc reacts with the hydrogen ions of the acid solution to form zinc ions and hydrogen gas. Equation 2 shows that during the reaction, zinc is oxidized to zinc ions and hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen. Thus, Eq 2 can be conveniently divided into two reactions...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003556
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... in environments as diverse as subzero snowfields to deep ocean thermal vents. Halophiles evolved to live at extreme salinities turn pink the evaporation pans used to win salt from seawater. Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria create very acidic conditions (pH < 1) by producing sulfuric acid as an end product...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0091394
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... oxidizer and wash away any acids. Timely breakdown inspections are one way of possible early detection of damage, as shown by internal rust pits, carbuncles, and rust deposits. ...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006788
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... conditions; red, orange, or brown deposits associated with pits Ref 116 Iron-oxidizing bacteria (IOB) Decrease in pH due to oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ in and over pits Red-orange corrosion products with iron (III) oxides in top crust, enhanced IOB (e.g., Gallionella ), acidic pH at metal surface...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.usage.c9001584
EISBN: 978-1-62708-236-5
... occurred because of unsafe plant operations and poor maintenance procedures. Specifically, the ammonium nitrate within the 18,000 gal capacity neutralizer vessel had become contaminated and made highly acidic. The operators then injected superheated steam directly into the ammonium nitrate...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006782
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
...: (Eq 2) Zn + 2 H + → Zn 2 + + H 2 Zinc reacts with the hydrogen ions of the acid solution to form zinc ions and hydrogen gas. Equation 2 shows that during the reaction, zinc is oxidized to zinc ions, and hydrogen ions are reduced to hydrogen. Thus, Eq 2 can be conveniently...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001774
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... stainless steel; the flange from type 321, and the ring gasket from 347. Examination revealed that the failure occurred by transgranular stress-corrosion cracking, initiated by the presence of polythionic acid. Detailed metallurgical investigation was subsequently conducted to identify what may have caused...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... “impurities” than do structural SiC ceramics, which are discussed in the following sections. Silica bricks contain typically >93% SiO 2 with minor amounts of lime (CaO <3.5%), alumina (Al 2 O 3 <2%), and iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 <1.5%). They have high corrosion resistance to acid slags...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001069
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
...Abstract Abstract A segment of a stainless steel clad bottom cone of an acid sulfite pulping batch digester failed from severe corrosion loss. The digester was fabricated of 19 mm ( 3 4 in.) low-carbon steel with 3.8 mm (0.15 in.) type 317L stainless steel cladding. The manufacturing...