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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Stability diagrams for oxides and sulfides of iron, nickel, and chromium as a function of oxygen and sulfur partial pressures. Source: Ref 3 More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 10 Intergranular cracks and oxides adjacent to surface. (× 400). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 4 Microstructure showing oxides and inclusions. (×150). More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Red oxides indicated by arrows are associated with deep pits on the diaphragm rim of the drive shaft shown in Fig. 4 . More
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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 6 Globular oxides and slag at origin of failure. (×100). More
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 27 Concentration of predominant oxides of calcium-magnesium-alumino-silicates (CMAS), grouped by examples of sources of siliceous debris, compositions reported for actual deposits in engines, and model compositions used in laboratory investigations of the problem. Source: Ref 196 More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 4 ( a ) Worn surface of the die, ( b ) detail of accumulated zone of oxides and wear debris particles, and ( c ) detail of voids that caused “blowpipe holes” damage More
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Published: 01 December 2019
Fig. 10 Light micrograph (cross section) showing oxides formed inside the cracks of the die steel. (Etchant 1 ml nitric acid + 100 ml amyl alcohol) More
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Published: 30 August 2021
Fig. 5 Lap seam weld with oxides and areas of incomplete fusion, indicated by arrows, along the characteristic angled bond line More
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001233
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... Abstract High-chromium steel pipes 42.25 x 3.25 mm from a blast furnace gas fired recuperator for the preheating of air were heavily oxidized and perforated in places. It was found that the blast furnace gas had a high sulfur content. Both the carburization and the formation of sulfide proved...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c0045909
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... obtained from the inclusions and from the steel matrix. The inclusion spectrum contained primarily iron and oxygen, whereas the matrix spectrum contained primarily iron. X-ray maps were made to show the distribution of iron and oxygen. These results indicated that the inclusions were iron oxide. A similar...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.steel.c9001239
EISBN: 978-1-62708-232-7
... 1150 deg C. This type of selective oxidation at which the easily oxidized chromium burns, while the nickel is not attacked, is caused by mildly oxidizing gases and is sometimes designated as green rot. Under these conditions, chromium-containing steels and alloys whose oxidation resistance is based...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.aero.c0091726
EISBN: 978-1-62708-217-4
.... Recommendations included revising the specification to require a minimum NO content of 0.6%. Nitrogen dioxide Pressure vessels Propellant tanks Ti-6Al-4V UNS R56406 Stress-corrosion cracking Nitrogen tetroxide, a storable hypergolic oxidizer, was used in the service propulsion system (SPS...
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Published: 15 January 2021
Fig. 27 (a) Continuous oxide on steel. Nital etch. (b) Intergranular oxidation on Inconel 600 superalloy More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 22 Deformation and fracture map for (a) magnesium and (b) magnesium oxide. Mode 1, 2, and 3 represent regions of brittle fracture mechanisms (cleavage or IG fracture) with the following conditions: Region 1, pre-existing cracks propagate; Region 2, slip or twin-nucleated cracks propagate More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 15 Fracture surface of steel shaft with beach marks produced by oxidation. More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 4 Incinerator environment has led to accelerated oxidation of the IN-690 liner approximately 100 to 150 μm deep. Oxidation first initiates along intergranular paths. Width represents approximately 0.572 mm (0.0225 in.) More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 1 The pH and oxidation reduction potential for growth of anaerobic bacteria able to reduce nitrate or sulfate (dots in plots) and for soils dominated by the microbial metabolism (boxes). Aerobic bacteria grow over a wide range of pH at E h > 300 mV (normal hydrogen electrode More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of a generic corrosion cell showing anodic oxidation of the metal ( M ) complemented by cathodic reduction of an electron acceptor ( X ). The corrosion rate can be controlled by the rate of arrival of X at the cathodic surface, a buildup of metal ions, M More
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Published: 01 January 2002
Fig. 24 Oxide debris produced when fretting steel against a polymer More