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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... an investigation that included fractographic and microstructural analysis, hardness testing, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and finite-element analysis. The fracture was shown to be brittle in nature and covered with oxide flakes, but no other flaws relevant to the failure were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., conversion of chlorides to sulfates, preferential stabilization of chlorides at the oxide/metal interface, and oxide flaking. X-ray diffraction analysis of the corrosion products confirmed the presence of the alkali salt species mentioned above, as well as alkali chromates, in addition to Cr 2 O 3 , Fe 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... Abstract Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... the scale has flaked off. Furthermore, the rim of the disk was badly damaged by secondary mechanical action. The core of the valve had a very fine austenitic microstructure with precipitations of numerous granular and very fine, mostly rounded carbides and tine segregation bands. A hard alloy facing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... Abstract A ball bearing in a military jet engine sustained heavy damage and was analyzed to determine the cause. Almost all of the balls and a portion of the outer race were found to be flaking, but there were no signs of damage on the inner race and cage. Tests (chemistry, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... the conclusions that brittle fracture of the flange from the body was the result of overload caused by misalignment between the flange and the roll holder. The microstructure contained graphite flakes of excessive size and inclusions in critical areas; however, these metallurgical imperfections did not appear...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... liquids, and stray electric currents. Most common modes of failure include flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion. The modes of failure are illustrated with examples from practice. Roller bearings Rolling-bearing...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... the flake surfaces were not noticeably oxidized, conditions were probably favorable for spotty sintering of the touching crack faces. The very small amount of fatigue crack propagation observed probably did not contribute to the overall fracture process. It is more likely that a single, exceptionally...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... flakes in an iron matrix, typical of gray cast iron. Etching in 2% nital revealed a bainite matrix with scattered massive carbides ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 6 Micrograph showing graphite flakes characteristic of gray cast iron. Unetched. 64×. Fig. 7 Micrograph of the same area shown in Fig. 6...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... temperature of the lubricant, which is 205 to 230 °C (400 to 450 °F) for the synthetic lubricants that are widely used at elevated temperatures. Molybdenum high-speed tool steels, such as M1, M2, and M10, are suitable for use to about 425 °C (800 °F) in oxidizing environments. Grades M1 and M2 maintain...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... was an alloy-depleted zone containing gray globules of chromium sulfide adjacent to the normal IN-713 structure. These corrosion products did not readily flake from the surface of the blade, because of the composition of the mixed oxides and that of the alloy-depleted base metal. Fig. 1 Uncoated...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... of primary grain boundary cracks in cast ingots. Cracking (fracturing) Crankshafts Flakes (defects) Forging Ingots CK 45 Intergranular fracture Metalworking-related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat treated steel...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content of the gas...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
...) for the synthetic lubricants that are widely used at elevated temperatures. Molybdenum high-speed tool steels, such as M1, M2, and M10, are suitable for use to approximately 425 °C (800 °F) in oxidizing environments. Grades M1 and M2 maintain satisfactory hardnesses to approximately 480 °C (900 °F...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001005
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
..., revealed that fatigue crack initiation occurred from the tip of oxide scale inclusions forged into the U-shaped arm at the inside radius. Corrective action involved redesigning the steering arm to increase the minimum forging radius and reduce the stress level at the inner-bend radius, and reducing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
.... For example, a zirconium oxide abrasive is often used to prepare steels for this type of analysis, because zirconium is rarely specified in steels. Thus, if a small piece of zirconium oxide does get embedded in the metal, it will not affect the analysis. The actual size of the “small chunk” required...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... metallurgist or metallographer is certainly familiar with the phenomenon known as microbiologically influenced corrosion, or MIC. However, many new to the field may be surprised to learn that there are microorganisms that can actually corrode metal via iron-oxidizing or sulfur-reducing processes. MIC...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... by gaseous hydrogen on the crack front. For example, when steel is saturated with hydrogen at elevated temperature and then is cooled, gaseous hydrogen precipitates in microvoids, and an extremely high pressure of the gas can be developed. Flakes in heavy forgings and underbead cracks in weldments can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... precipitates in microvoids, and an extremely high pressure of the gas can be developed. Flakes in heavy forgings and underbead cracks in weldments can be explained by the pressure theory. Hydrogen charged into steel during aqueous corrosion or cathodic charging can also produce a very high pressure...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... performed at room temperature or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips of the base material, or foreign material also can be embedded into the surface during working. These surface imperfections produce...