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Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001845
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
... led an investigation that included fractographic and microstructural analysis, hardness testing, inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy, and finite-element analysis. The fracture was shown to be brittle in nature and covered with oxide flakes, but no other flaws relevant to the failure were observed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001492
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
...Abstract Abstract Electroless nickel plating separation from copper alloy CDA175 retaining clips used on printed circuit boards was caused by a copper oxide layer that reduced adhesion of the nickel plating on the clips. Stresses that developed during module insertion caused flaking to occur...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., conversion of chlorides to sulfates, preferential stabilization of chlorides at the oxide/metal interface, and oxide flaking. X-ray diffraction analysis of the corrosion products confirmed the presence of the alkali salt species mentioned above, as well as alkali chromates, in addition to Cr 2 O 3 , Fe 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c9001485
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
... of harmful liquids, and stray electric currents. Most common modes of failure include flaking or pitting (fatigue), cracks or fractures, creep, smearing, wear, softening, indentation, fluting, and corrosion. The modes of failure are illustrated with examples from practice. Roller bearings Rolling...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0001810
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... determined by the breakdown temperature of the lubricant, which is 205 to 230 °C (400 to 450 °F) for the synthetic lubricants that are widely used at elevated temperatures. Molybdenum high-speed tool steels, such as M1, M2, and M10, are suitable for use to about 425 °C (800 °F) in oxidizing environments...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 3
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v03.c9001795
EISBN: 978-1-62708-241-9
...Abstract Abstract A ball bearing in a military jet engine sustained heavy damage and was analyzed to determine the cause. Almost all of the balls and a portion of the outer race were found to be flaking, but there were no signs of damage on the inner race and cage. Tests (chemistry, hardness...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001050
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
... microstructure of the sample presented in Fig. 6 consisted of graphite flakes in an iron matrix, typical of gray cast iron. Etching in 2% nital revealed a bainite matrix with scattered massive carbides ( Fig. 7 ). Fig. 6 Micrograph showing graphite flakes characteristic of gray cast iron. Unetched. 64...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001182
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... parts the scale has flaked off. Furthermore, the rim of the disk was badly damaged by secondary mechanical action. The core of the valve had a very fine austenitic microstructure with precipitations of numerous granular and very fine, mostly rounded carbides and tine segregation bands. A hard alloy...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.mech.c0047315
EISBN: 978-1-62708-225-9
...-etched specimen taken from the flange ( Fig. 1b ) revealed a matrix of coarse pearlite. Graphite flakes were distributed and oriented randomly, but were undesirably large. Several types of inclusions were observed, including sulfides, oxides, phosphides, and silicates. A large inclusion, believed...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001026
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., typical for near-crack-tip areas. Because the flake surfaces were not noticeably oxidized, conditions were probably favorable for spotty sintering of the touching crack faces. The very small amount of fatigue crack propagation observed probably did not contribute to the overall fracture process...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006834
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... oxide spots, usually with shiny borders, in bore or on periphery of outer ring Incomplete contact and slight movement or vibration between ring and its seat Red oxide on surface where ring contacts shoulder Slight movement due to shaft flexure Dull indentations on raceway at same spacing...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003552
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Characteristics Hydrogen Reaction Embrittlement Hydrogen-Induced Blistering Flakes Fisheyes Hydrogen Attack Cracking from Hydride Formation Susceptibility of Various Metals Overview of Hydrogen Damage Processes Annealed Nickel Alloys Nickel-Base Superalloys Aluminum and Aluminum...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003529
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... particles detected in Fig. 1 showing composition differences. (a) Portion of EDS scan obtained from one of the (bright) iron based particles in Fig. 1(b) . Some traces of carbon are also seen here, probably an oily residue on the flake. The silicon may be due to a dirt contaminant. (b) Portion...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006784
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... Laboratory Cracking Tests Hydrogen-Induced Blistering Flakes Fisheyes Hydrogen Attack Cracking from Hydride Formation Specify a Proper and Appropriate Hardness Range Specify Proper Heat Treating and Tempering Ensure Good Cleaning Solution Maintenance Ensure Good Plating Solution...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.process.c9001253
EISBN: 978-1-62708-235-8
... in the formation of primary grain boundary cracks in cast ingots. Cracking (fracturing) Crankshafts Flakes (defects) Forging Ingots CK 45 Intergranular fracture Metalworking-related failures Hydrogen damage and embrittlement Octagonal cast ingots weighing 6.5 tons and made of unalloyed heat...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001179
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
... with it by shrinkage at 530 deg C. The connectors were made of SAE 4140 Cr-Mo steel. The material for the rod pipes was Fe-0.4C-1Mn steel. Structural stresses played a role in the cracking. Iron sulfide formed on the fracture planes and flake-like stress cracks occurred in the steel. The hydrogen sulfide content...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.marine.c0046969
EISBN: 978-1-62708-227-3
... globules of chromium sulfide adjacent to the normal IN-713 structure. These corrosion products did not readily flake from the surface of the blade, because of the composition of the mixed oxides and that of the alloy-depleted base metal. Fig. 1 Uncoated and aluminide-coated IN-713 turbine blades...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003507
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
..., whether performed at room temperature or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips of the base material, or foreign material also can be embedded into the surface during working. These surface imperfections...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006835
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... or at elevated temperatures, makes them common sources of surface discontinuities, such as laps, seams, and cold shuts. Oxides, slivers or chips of the base material, or foreign material also can be embedded into the surface during working. These surface imperfections can produce notches of unknown severity...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.auto.c9001704
EISBN: 978-1-62708-218-1
... metallurgist or metallographer is certainly familiar with the phenomenon known as microbiologically influenced corrosion, or MIC. However, many new to the field may be surprised to learn that there are microorganisms that can actually corrode metal via iron-oxidizing or sulfur-reducing processes. MIC...