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oxidative stability

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Published: 01 June 2019
Fig. 9 Stability diagrams for oxides and sulfides of iron, nickel, and chromium as a function of oxygen and sulfur partial pressures. Source: Ref 3 More
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006923
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
...-formaldehyde (PF) 163 325 150 300 0.25 0.14 16 Unsaturated polyester (UP) 279 535 130 265 0.12 0.07 16 Modified polyphenylene oxide alloy (PPO mod) 100 212 80 175 … … 38 Polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) 260 500 200 390 0.17 30 Polysulfone (PSU) 174 345 140 285 0.26 0.15...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001357
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... Viscosity SSU at 37.8°C 35 38 Ashes w/c Traces Traces Oxidation stability test Do not pass Do not pass Neutralization number, mg KOH/g 0.3 0.3 Conradson carbon on 10% distillation vol., w/c 0.30 0.33 Upper heat content, kcal/k 10,970 10,950 Water and sediments, vol. % 0.1 0.1...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006920
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... the corresponding carboxylic acids. In all cases, the final oxidation products are amine and carboxylic acid groups. Fig. 14 General photochemical degradation mechanism of polyamides Ultraviolet Stabilization of Polymeric Materials Because nearly all polymeric materials are influenced...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006931
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of polymerization, fusion, T g , T m Phase changes, reaction kinetics degree of cross linking, degradation inhibitor content and effectiveness Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) Composition, weight loss with time or temperature Thermal and oxidative stability, volatilization kinetics Dynamic mechanical...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.power.c0046252
EISBN: 978-1-62708-229-7
... in surface oxidation and crevices. However, type 347 stainless steel would be better, because it has greater stability during welding, even though, like type 321, it is susceptible to σ-phase formation. Inconel 600 would be an even better choice for the bellows because of its improved stress-oxidation...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11A
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 30 August 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11A.a0006828
EISBN: 978-1-62708-329-4
... be extremely stable; it is often necessary to employ aggressive fluxes to break down these oxides to permit suitable brazeability. The topic of oxide stability is discussed further later in this article. A wide variety of different fluxes are available for brazing, and many of them are matched...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.petrol.c9001638
EISBN: 978-1-62708-228-0
..., they give a good idea of the conditions required for a metal to form a specific compound. Fig. 9 Stability diagrams for oxides and sulfides of iron, nickel, and chromium as a function of oxygen and sulfur partial pressures. Source: Ref 3 These diagrams specify the stable phases in contact...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003551
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... the stability of refractory and ceramic materials (in particular, the carbon-containing refractories that are now very widely used). Gas-solid reactions are important not only for dealing with the direct oxidation of carbon in air but also for evaluating the reduction of aggregates (MgO, Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , etc...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 January 2021
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0006787
EISBN: 978-1-62708-295-2
... oxidation, carburization, metal dusting, nitridation, carbonitridation, sulfidation, and chloridation. Several other potential degradation processes, namely hot corrosion, hydrogen interactions, molten salts, aging, molten sand, erosion-corrosion, and environmental cracking, are discussed under boiler tube...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003550
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... loss (for details of oxidation chemistry, see Ref 12 ). As with thermal degradation, chemical additive stabilizers and antioxidants can be added to the polymer that will break the chain reaction in a variety of ways, preserving polymer properties at least until the additives have been consumed...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006867
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... of oxidation chemistry, see Ref 13 , 14 ). As with thermal degradation, chemical additive stabilizers and antioxidants can be added to the polymer that will break the chain reaction in a variety of ways, preserving polymer properties at least until the additives have been consumed or removed from...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.modes.c0090460
EISBN: 978-1-62708-234-1
... of molecular degradation caused by the service conditions. Specifically, the part material had undergone severe chemical attack, including oxidation and hydrolysis, through contact with silver chloride. The source of the silver chloride was not established, but one potential source was photographic silver...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.bldgs.c9001171
EISBN: 978-1-62708-219-8
... the precipitation (including reduction of carbon content, appropriate heat treatment, cold work of steel, reduction of austenitic grain size and stabilizing elements) were described. The presence of microcracks due to highly localized heat concentrations with consequent thermal expansion and considerable shrinkages...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 June 2019
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.med.c0048410
EISBN: 978-1-62708-226-6
... Abstract A narrow bone plate made of type 316 stainless steel and used to stabilize an open midshaft femur fracture failed. A crack at a plate hole next to the fracture site had been revealed by a radiograph taken 13 weeks after the operation. The plate was revealed to be slightly bent...
Series: ASM Handbook Archive
Volume: 11
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 January 2002
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11.a0003555
EISBN: 978-1-62708-180-1
... Abstract High temperature corrosion may occur in numerous environments and is affected by factors such as temperature, alloy or protective coating composition, time, and gas composition. This article explains a number of potential degradation processes, namely, oxidation, carburization...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 1
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1992
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v01.c9001109
EISBN: 978-1-62708-214-3
..., conversion of chlorides to sulfates, preferential stabilization of chlorides at the oxide/metal interface, and oxide flaking. X-ray diffraction analysis of the corrosion products confirmed the presence of the alkali salt species mentioned above, as well as alkali chromates, in addition to Cr 2 O 3 , Fe 2...
Series: ASM Failure Analysis Case Histories
Volume: 2
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 01 December 1993
DOI: 10.31399/asm.fach.v02.c9001328
EISBN: 978-1-62708-215-0
... showed a secondary phase in the cover pass rich in nickel, niobium, and silicon. This phase varied in terms of the relative niobium content. Niobium is also an effective carbide stabilizer. Corrosion Deposits Grain boundary oxidation products were identified through EDS as consisting mostly...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006871
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
..., and carboxylic acids. The extent to which these oxidation products are formed for any given polymer is often characteristic for the material and the degradation pathway. By quantification of these so-called critical degradation products, the progress of oxidation and the effectiveness of stabilizers can...
Series: ASM Handbook
Volume: 11B
Publisher: ASM International
Published: 15 May 2022
DOI: 10.31399/asm.hb.v11B.a0006939
EISBN: 978-1-62708-395-9
... due to poor thermal-oxidative stability ( Ref 1 ). The use of additives in thermosetting polymers is equally important. One of the oldest thermosets, Bakelite, exhibits high cure shrinkage, which leads to cracks in the mold material ( Ref 2 ). Suitable filler additives reduce the cure shrinkage...